FOR508: Advanced Digital Forensics, Incident Response, and Threat Hunting
I have already used several of the tools/techniques from the course with past-case evidence to uncover things I did not previously know.
The examples in the course relate to what i need to know to deal with real world threats.
ADVANCED THREATS ARE IN YOUR NETWORK - IT'S TIME TO GO HUNTING!
FOR508: Advanced Incident Response and Threat Hunting Course will help you to:
- Detect how and when a breach occurred
- Identify compromised and affected systems
- Determine what attackers took or changed
- Contain and remediate incidents
- Develop key sources of threat intelligence
- Hunt down additional breaches using knowledge of the adversary
DAY 0: A 3-letter government agency contacts you to say an advanced threat group is targeting organizations like yours, and that your organization is likely a target. They won't tell how they know, but they suspect that there are already several breached systems within your enterprise. An advanced persistent threat, aka an APT, is likely involved. This is the most sophisticated threat that you are likely to face in your efforts to defend your systems and data, and these adversaries may have been actively rummaging through your network undetected for months or even years.
This is a hypothetical situation, but the chances are very high that hidden threats already exist inside your organization's networks. Organizations can't afford to believe that their security measures are perfect and impenetrable, no matter how thorough their security precautions might be. Prevention systems alone are insufficient to counter focused human adversaries who know how to get around most security and monitoring tools.
The key is to constantly look for attacks that get past security systems, and to catch intrusions in progress, rather than after attackers have completed their objectives and done worse damage to the organization. For the incident responder, this process is known as "threat hunting". Threat hunting uses known adversary behaviors to proactively examine the network and endpoints in order to identify new data breaches.
Threat hunting and Incident response tactics and procedures have evolved rapidly over the past several years. Your team can no longer afford to use antiquated incident response and threat hunting techniques that fail to properly identify compromised systems, provide ineffective containment of the breach, and ultimately fail to rapidly remediate the incident. Incident response and threat hunting teams are the keys to identifying and observing malware indicators and patterns of activity in order to generate accurate threat intelligence that can be used to detect current and future intrusions.
This in-depth incident response and threat hunting course provides responders and threat hunting teams with advanced skills to hunt down, identify, counter, and recover from a wide range of threats within enterprise networks, including APT nation-state adversaries, organized crime syndicates, and hactivism. Constantly updated, FOR508: Advanced Incident Response and Threat Hunting addresses today's incidents by providing hands-on incident response and threat hunting tactics and techniques that elite responders and hunters are successfully using to detect, counter, and respond to real-world breach cases.
The course uses a hands-on enterprise intrusion lab - modeled after a real-world targeted APT attack on an enterprise network and based on APT group tactics to target a network - to lead you to challenges and solutions via extensive use of the SIFT Workstation collection of tools.
During the intrusion and threat hunting lab exercises, you will identify where the initial targeted attack occurred and how the adversary is moving laterally through multiple compromised systems. You will also extract and create crucial cyber threat intelligence that can help you properly scope the compromise and detect future breaches.
During a targeted attack, an organization needs the best incident response team in the field. FOR508: Advanced Incident Response and Threat Hunting will train you and your team to respond, detect, scope, and stop intrusions and data breaches.
GATHER YOUR INCIDENT RESPONSE TEAM -
IT'S TIME TO GO HUNTING
FOR508 Incident Response and Threat Hunting Course Topics
- Advanced use of a wide range of best-of-breed open-source tools in the SIFT Workstation to perform incident response and digital forensics.
- Hunting and responding to advanced adversaries such as nation-state actors, organized crime, and hacktivists.
- Threat hunting techniques that will aid in quicker identification of breaches.
- Rapid incident response analysis and breach assessment.
- Incident response and intrusion forensics methodology.
- Remote and enterprise incident response system analysis.
- Windows live incident response.
- Memory analysis during incident response and threat hunting.
- Detailed instruction on Windows enterprise credentials and how they are compromised.
- Internal lateral movement analysis and detection.
- Rapid and deep-dive timeline creation and analysis.
- Volume shadow copy exploitation for hunting threats and incident response.
- Detection of anti-forensics and adversary hiding techniques.
- Discovery of unknown malware on a system.
- Adversary threat intelligence development, indicators of compromise, and usage.
- Cyber-kill chain strategies.
- Step-by-step tactics and procedures to respond to and investigate intrusion cases
FOR508.1: Advanced Incident Response & Threat Hunting
There are ways to gain an advantage against the adversaries targeting you -- it starts with the right mindset and knowing what works.
Incident responders and threat hunters should be armed with the latest tools, memory analysis techniques, and enterprise methodologies to identify, track, and contain advanced adversaries and to remediate incidents. Incident response and threat hunting analysts must be able to scale their analysis across thousands of systems in their enterprise. This section examines the six-step incident response methodology as it applies to an enterprise's response to a targeted attack. We will show the importance of developing security intelligence to impact the adversaries' "kill chain". We will also demonstrate live response techniques and tactics that can be applied to a single system and across the entire enterprise.
Enterprise scanning techniques are now a requirement to track targeted attacks by an APT group or organized crime syndicates that can rapidly propagate through hundreds of systems. Responding to this many systems cannot be accomplished using the standard "pull the hard drive" forensic examination methodology. Such an approach will alert the adversaries that you are aware of them and may allow them to adapt quickly and exfiltrate sensitive information in response.
Students will receive a full six-month license of F-Response Enterprise Edition, enabling them to use their workstation or the SIFT workstation to connect to hundreds or thousands of systems in the enterprise. This capability is used to benchmark, facilitate, and demonstrate new incident response technologies that enable a responder to look for indicators of compromise across the entire enterprise.
- SIFT Workstation orientation
- Mounting remote/local drives via SIFT Workstation
- Cyber threat intelligence - Indicator creation and examination
- Malware autostart persistence analysis
- Remote enterprise memory examination using F-Response Enterprise
- Remote enterprise response, hunting, and analysis using F-Response Enterprise
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
- Real Incident Response Tactics
- Preparation: Key tools, techniques, and procedures that an incident response team needs to respond properly to intrusions
- Identification/Scoping: Proper scoping of an incident and detecting all compromised systems in the enterprise
- Containment/Intelligence Development: Restricting access, monitoring, and learning about the adversary in order to develop threat intelligence
- Eradication/Remediation: Determining and executing key steps that must be taken to help stop the current incident
- Recovery: Recording of the threat intelligence to be used in the event of a similar adversary returning to the enterprise
- Avoiding "Whack-A-Mole" Incident Response: Going beyond immediate eradication without proper incident scoping/containment
- Threat Hunting
- Hunting versus Reactive Response
- Intelligence-Driven Incident Response
- Building a Continuous Incident Response/Threat Hunting Capability
- Forensic Analysis versus Threat Hunting
- Threat Hunt Team Roles
- Cyber Threat Intelligence
- Importance of Cyber Threat Intelligence
- Understanding the "Kill Chain"
- Threat Intelligence Creation and Use During Incident Response and Threat Hunting
- Creation of Indicators of Compromise
- Incident Response Team Life-Cycle Overview
- Threat Hunting in the Enterprise
- Identification of Compromised Systems
- Finding Active and Dormant Malware
- Digitally Signed Malware
- Malware Characteristics
- Common Hiding Mechanisms
- Finding Evil by Understanding Normal
- Understanding Common Windows Services and Processes
- svchost.exe Abuse
- Malware Persistence Identification
- AutoStart Locations
- Service Creation/Replacement
- Service Failure Recovery
- Scheduled Tasks
- DLL Hijacking
- WMI Event Consumers
- More Advanced - Local Group Policy, MS Office Add-In, or BIOS Flashing
- Remote and Enterprise Incident Response
- Remote System Access in the Enterprise
- Remote System Host-based Analysis
- Scalable Host-based Analysis (one analyst examining 1,000 systems) and Data Stacking
- Remote Memory Analysis
FOR508.2: Memory Forensics in Incident Response & Threat Hunting
During an intrusion, using memory analysis sometimes feels like cheating - finding active malware shouldn't be this easy.
Now a critical component of many incident response and threat hunting teams that detect advanced threats in their organization, memory forensics has come a long way in just a few years. Memory forensics can be extraordinarily effective at finding evidence of worms, rootkits, and advanced malware used by an APT group of attackers. Traditionally, memory analysis was solely the domain of Windows internals experts, but the recent development of new tools makes it accessible today to anyone, especially incident responders and threat hunters. Better interfaces, documentation, and built-in detection heuristics have greatly leveled the playing field. This extremely popular section will introduce some of the most capable tools available and give you a solid foundation to add core and advanced memory forensic skills to your incident response and forensics capabilities.
- Detect unknown live and dormant custom malware in memory across multiple systems in an enterprise environment
- Find APT "beacon" malware over common ports used by targeted attackers to access command and control (C2) channels
- Find residual attacker command-line activity through scanning strings in memory and by extracting command history buffers
- Compare compromised system memory against a baseline system using Frequency of Least Occurrence techniques
- Identify advanced malware hiding techniques, including code injection and rootkits
- Analysis of memory from infected systems:
- TDL3/ TDSS
- StormWorm Rootkit
- Black Energy
- Custom APT command and control malware
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
- Memory Acquisition
- Acquisition of System Memory from both Windows 32/64 Bit Systems
- Hibernation and Pagefile Memory Extraction and Conversion
- Virtual Machine Memory Acquisition
- Memory Forensics Analysis Process for Response and Hunting
- Identify Rogue Processes
- Analyze Process DLLs and Handles
- Review Network Artifacts
- Look for Evidence of Code Injection
- Check for Signs of a Rootkit
- Acquire Suspicious Processes and Drivers
- Memory Forensics Examinations
- Live Memory Forensics
- Memory Analysis Techniques with Redline
- Advanced Memory Analysis with Volatility
- Code Injection, Malware, and Rootkit Hunting in Memory
- Perform In-Memory Windows Registry Examinations
- Extract Typed Adversary Command Lines
- Investigate Windows Services
- Hunting Malware Using Comparison Baseline Systems
- Find and Dump Cached Files from RAM
- Dumping Hashes and Credentials from Memory
- Memory Analysis Tools
- Comae Windows Memory Toolkit
FOR508.3: Intrusion Forensics
Attackers are sloppy - they leave footprints everywhere. Learn the secrets of the best hunters.
Cyber defenders have a wide variety of tools and artifacts available to identify, hunt, and track adversary activity in a network. Each attacker's action leaves a corresponding artifact, and understanding what is left behind as footprints can be critical to both red and blue team members. Attacks follow a predictable pattern, and we focus our detective efforts on immutable portions of that pattern. As an example, at some point an attacker will need to run code to accomplish its objectives. We can identify this activity via application execution artifacts. The attacker will also need one or more accounts to run code. Consequently, account auditing is a powerful means of identifying malicious actions. An attacker also needs a means to move throughout the network, so we look for artifacts left by the relatively small number of ways there are to accomplish this part of their mission. In this section, we cover common attacker tradecraft and discuss the various data sources and forensic tools you can use to identify malicious activity in the enterprise.
- Hunting and detecting evidence of execution with Shimcache
- Shimcache memory RAM examinations
- Prefetch carving and extraction from memory and unallocated space
- Finding evil in RecentFileCache and Volume Shadow copies
- Hunting and tracking lateral movement with event log analysis
- Discovering credential abuse with event log extraction and analysis
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
- Advanced Evidence of Execution Detection
- Application Compatibility Cache
- Prefetch and Shimcache Extraction via Memory
- Window Shadow Volume Copy Analysis
- Volume Shadow Copy Analysis Options
- Raw and Live Shadow Copy Examination Using the SIFT Workstation
- Integrating Shadow Copy Analysis into Investigations
- Targeted Shadow Copy Analysis
- Lateral Movement Adversary Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs)
- Stealing and Utilization of Legitimate Credentials
- Compromising Credentials Techniques
- Remote Desktop Services Misuse
- Windows Admin Shares Abuse
- PsExec Utilization
- Windows Remote Management Tool Techniques
- PowerShell Remoting/WMIC Hacking
- Vulnerability Exploitation
- Event Log Analysis for Incident Responders and Hunters
- Profiling Account Usage
- Tracking and Hunting Lateral Movement
- Identifying Suspicious Services
- Detecting Rogue Application Installation
- Finding Malware Execution and Process Tracking
- Capturing Command Lines and Scripts
- Anti-Forensics and Event Log Clearing
FOR508.4: Timeline Analysis
Timeline analysis will change the way you approach digital forensics, threat hunting, and incident response...forever.
Learn advanced incident response and hunting techniques uncovered via timeline analysis directly from the authors who pioneered timeline analysis tradecraft. Temporal data are located everywhere on a computer system. Filesystem modified/access/creation/change times, log files, network data, registry data, and Internet history files all contain time data that can be correlated into critical analysis to successfully solve cases. Pioneered by Rob Lee in 2001, timeline analysis has become a critical incident response, hunting, and forensics technique. New timeline analysis frameworks provide the means to conduct simultaneous examinations of a multitude of time-based artifacts. The analysis that once took days now takes minutes.
This section will step you through the two primary methods of building and analyzing timelines created during advanced incident response, threat hunting, and forensic cases. Exercises will show analysts how to create a timeline and also how to introduce the key methods to help you use those timelines effectively in your cases.
- Using timeline analysis, track adversary activity by hunting an APT group's footprints of malware, lateral movement, and persistence
- Target hidden and time-stomped malware and utilities that an APT uses to move in the network and maintain its presence
- Track APT activity second-by-second through in-depth super-timeline analysis
- Observe targeted attackers laterally move to other systems in the enterprise by watching a trail left in filesystem times, registry, Shimcache, and other temporal-based artifacts
- Learn how to filter system artifact, file system, and registry timelines to target specific data efficiently
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
- Timeline Analysis Overview
- Timeline Benefits
- Prerequisite Knowledge
- Finding the Pivot Point
- Timeline Context Clues
- Timeline Analysis Process
- Memory Analysis Timeline Creation
- Memory Timelining
- Filesystem Timeline Creation and Analysis
- MACB Meaning by Filesystem
- Windows Time Rules (File Copy versus File Move)
- Filesystem Timeline Creation Using Sleuthkit and fls
- Bodyfile Analysis and Filtering Using the mactime Tool
- Super Timeline Creation and Analysis
- Super Timeline Artifact Rules
- Program Execution, File Knowledge, File Opening, File Deletion
- Timeline Creation with log2timeline/Plaso
- log2timeline Input Modules
- log2timeline Output Modules
- Filtering the Super Timeline Using psort
- Targeted Super Timeline Creation
- Automated Super Timeline Creation
- Super Timeline Analysis
- Volume Shadow Copy Timelining
FOR508.5: Incident Response & Hunting Across the Enterprise | Advanced Adversary & Anti-Forensics Detection
Advanced adversaries are good. We must be better.
Over the years, we have observed that many incident responders and threat hunters have a challenging time finding threats without pre-built indicators of compromise or threat intelligence gathered before a breach. This is especially true in APT adversary intrusions. This advanced session will demonstrate techniques used by first responders to identify malware or forensic artifacts when very little information exists about their capabilities or hidden locations. We will discuss techniques to help funnel possibilities down to the candidates most likely to be evil malware trying to hide on the system.
- Find unknown malware across your enterprise by looking for dormant and active malware traces
- Track which systems the targeted attackers laterally moved to in the enterprise and how they transitioned from system to system so easily without being detected
- Understand how an APT group can acquire domain admin rights in a locked-down environment
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
- Evolution of Incident Response Scripting
- Incident Response Triage Investigations with PowerShell
- Malware and Anti-Forensic Detection
- NTFS Filesystem Analysis
- Master File Table (MFT) Critical Areas
- NTFS System Files
- NTFS Metadata Attributes ($Standard_Information, $Filename, $Data)
- Rules of Windows Timestamps for $StdInfo and $Filename
- NTFS Timestamps
- Resident versus Nonresident Files
- Alternate Data Streams
- Directory Listings and the $I30 file
- Transaction Logging and the $Logfile and $UsnJrnl
- What Happens When Data Is Deleted from an NTFS Filesystem?
- Anti-Forensic Detection Methodologies
- MFT Anomalies
- Timeline Anomalies
- Deleted File
- Deleted Registry Keys
- File Wiping
- Adjusting Timestamps
- Identifying Compromised Hosts without Active Malware
- Rapid Data Triage Analysis
- Cyber Threat Intelligence and Indicators of Compromise Searching
- Evidence of Persistence
- Super-timeline Examination
- Packing/Entropy/Executable Anomaly/Density Checks
- System Logs
- Memory Analysis
- Malware Identification
FOR508.6: The APT Incident Response Challenge
This incredibly rich and realistic enterprise intrusion exercise is based on a real-world advanced persistent threat (APT) group. It brings together techniques learned earlier in the course and tests your newly acquired skills in a case that simulates an attack by an advanced adversary. The challenge brings it all together using a real intrusion into a complete Windows enterprise environment. You will be asked to uncover how the systems were compromised in the initial intrusion, find other systems the adversary moved to laterally, and identify intellectual property stolen via data exfiltration. You will walk out of the course with hands-on experience investigating realistic attacks, curated by a cadre of instructors with decades of experience fighting advanced threats from attackers ranging from nation-states to financial crime syndicates and hactivist groups.
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
- The Intrusion Forensic Challenge will ask each incident response team to analyze multiple systems in an enterprise network.
- During the challenge, each incident response team will be asked to answer key questions and address critical issues in the different categories listed below, just as they would during a real breach in their organizations:
IDENTIFICATION AND SCOPING:
1. How and when did the APT group breach our network?
2. List all compromised systems by IP address and specific evidence of compromise.
3. When and how did the attackers first laterally move to each system?
CONTAINMENT AND THREAT INTELLIGENCE GATHERING:
4. How and when did the attackers obtain domain administrator credentials?
5. Once on other systems, what did the attackers look for on each system?
6. Find extracted email from executive accounts and perform damage assessment.
7. Determine what was stolen: Recover any .rar files or other archives exfiltrated, find encoding passwords, and extract the contents to verify extracted data.
8. Collect and list all malware used in the attack.
9. Develop and present security intelligence or an indicator of compromise for the APT-group "beacon" malware for both host- and network-based enterprise scoping. What specific indicators exist for the use of this malware?
REMEDIATION AND RECOVERY
10. Do we need to change the passwords for every user in the domain or just the ones affected by the systems compromised?
11. Based on the attacker techniques and tools discovered during the incident, what are the recommended steps to remediate and recover from this incident?
a. What systems need to be rebuilt?
b. What IP addresses need to be blocked?
c. What countermeasures should we deploy to slow or stop these attackers if they come back?
d. What recommendations would you make to detect these intruders in our network again?
!!!!! IMPORTANT - BRING YOUR SYSTEM CONFIGURED USING THESE DIRECTIONS !!!!!
As your core operating system, you can use any 64-bit version of Windows, Apple OS X, or Linux that also can install and run VMware virtualization products.
It is critical that your CPU and operating system support 64-bit so that our 64-bit guest virtual machine will run on your laptop. VMware provides a free tool for Windows and Linux that will detect whether your host supports 64-bit guest virtual machines. For further troubleshooting, this article provides good instructions for Windows users to determine more about the CPU and OS capabilities.
Please download and install VMware Workstation 11 or VMware Fusion 7 or higher versions on your system before class beginning. If you do not own a licensed copy of VMware Workstation or Fusion, you can download a free 30-day trial copy from VMware. VMware will send you a time-limited serial number if you register for the trial at their website.
- MANDATORY FOR508 SYSTEM HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:
- CPU: 64-bit Intel i5 x64 2.0+ GHz (4th generation or above) processor or higher-based system is mandatory for this class (Important - Please Read: a 64-bit system processor is mandatory)
- RAM: 8 GB (Gigabytes) of RAM minimum (Note: Operating with less than 8GB of RAM will prevent you from experiencing all of the labs in the course!)
- Host Operating System: Fully patched and updated Windows (7+), Apple OS X (10.10+), or a recent version of Linux operating system (released 2014 or later) that can install and run VMware virtualization products (VMware Workstation 11 or VMware Fusion 7). Please note: It is necessary to fully update your host operating system before the class to ensure you have the right drivers and patches installed to utilize the latest USB 3.0 devices. Those who use a Linux host must also be able to access ExFAT partitions using the appropriate kernel or FUSE modules.
- Networking: Wireless 802.11 B, G, N, or AC; Ethernet is also nice to have, if possible.
- USB 3.0 Port(s) - highly recommended
- 150 Gigabytes of free space on your system hard drive. Free space on the hard drive is critical! Consider bringing a USB3 external hard drive as a backup in case space becomes an issue. Not having enough hard drive space is one of the most common issues students have with their laptops.
- Students should have local Administrator access within the host operating system and administrative access to the system's BIOS or equivalent pre-boot firmware
- PLEASE NOTE: Do NOT use the version of the SIFT Workstation downloaded from the Internet. We will provide a custom FOR508 version specifically configured for training on Day 1 of the course.
- MANDATORY FOR508 SYSTEM SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS (Please install the following before the beginning of the class):
2. Download and install on your Windows host: 7Zip
4. If you use Apple OSX, you must bring a Microsoft Windows Virtual Machine (Win7 or higher) to class
- If you have attended FOR408, you may want to bring your copy of the FOR408 - Windows SIFT Workstation Virtual Machine, as you can use it for the final challenge
- Bring/install any other forensic tool you feel could be useful (EnCase, FTK, etc). For the final challenge at the end of the course, you can utilize any forensic tool, including commercial capabilities, to help you and your team. If you have any dongles, licensed software, you are free to use them.
- Again, DO NOT use the version of the SIFT Workstation downloaded from the Internet. We will provide you with a version specifically configured for the FOR508 materials on Day 1 of the course.
If you have additional questions about the laptop specifications, please contact email@example.com.
Who Should Attend
- Incident Response Team Members who regularly respond to complex security incidents/intrusions from APT groups/advanced adversaries and need to know how to detect, investigate, remediate, and recover from compromised systems across an enterprise.
- Threat Hunters who are seeking to understand threats more fully and how to learn from them in order to more effectively hunt threats and counter their tradecraft.
- Experienced Digital Forensic Analysts who want to consolidate and expand their understanding of memory and timeline forensics, investigation of technically advanced individuals, incident response tactics, and advanced intrusion investigations.
- Information Security Professionals who may encounter data breach incidents and intrusions.
- Federal Agents and Law Enforcement Professionals who want to master advanced intrusion investigations and incident response, and expand their investigative skills beyond traditional host-based digital forensics.
- Red Team Members, Penetration Testers, and Exploit Developers who want to learn how their opponents can identify their actions, how common mistakes can compromise operations on remote systems, and how to avoid those mistakes. This course covers remote system forensics and data collection techniques that can be easily integrated into post-exploit operating procedures and exploit- testing batteries.
- SANS FOR408 and SEC504 Graduates looking to take their skills to the next level.
FOR508 is an advanced incident response and threat hunting course that focuses on detecting and responding to advanced persistent threats and organized crime threat groups. We do not cover the introduction or basics of incident response, Windows digital forensics, or hacker techniques in this course.
What You Will Receive
- SIFT Workstation
- This course extensively uses the SIFT Workstation to teach incident responders and forensic analysts how to respond to and investigate sophisticated attacks.
- The SIFT Workstation contains hundreds of free and open-source tools, easily matching any modern forensic and incident response commercial response tool suite.
- A virtual machine is used with many of the hands-on class exercises.
- Ubuntu Linux LTS Base.
- 64-bit base system.
- Better memory utilization.
- Auto-DFIR package update and customizations.
- Latest forensics tools and techniques.
- VMware Appliance ready to tackle forensics.
- Cross-compatibility between Linux and Windows.
- Expanded file system support (NTFS, HFS, EXFAT, and more).
- F-Response Enterprise
- Enables incident responders to access remote systems and physical memory of a remote computer via the network.
- Gives any incident response or forensics tool the capability to be used across the enterprise.
- Perfect for intrusion investigations and data breach incident response situations.
- Deployable agent to remote systems.
- SIFT Workstation compatible.
- Vendor neutral - works with just about any tool.
- Number of simultaneous examiners = unlimited.
- Number of simultaneous agents deployed = unlimited.
- The six-month license allows F-Response Enterprise to continue to be used and benchmarked in your environment at work/home.
- 128 GB Course USB
- USB loaded with APT case images, memory captures, SIFT Workstation 3, tools, and documentation.
- SANS DFIR APT Case Exercise Workbook
- Exercise book is over 250 pages long with detailed step-by-step instructions and examples to help you become a master incident responder.
- Incident Response & Computer Forensics, Third Edition by Jason Luttgens, Matt Pepe, and Kevin Mandia
- SANS DFIR Cheatsheets to Help Use the Tools in the Field
FOR508 Incident Response and Threat Hunting Training Will Prepare Your Team To:
- Learn and master the tools, techniques, and procedures necessary to effectively hunt, detect, and contain a variety of adversaries and to remediate incidents.
- Detect and hunt unknown live, dormant, and custom malware in memory across multiple Windows systems in an enterprise environment.
- Hunt through and perform incident response across hundreds of unique systems simultaneously using F-Response Enterprise and the SIFT Workstation .
- Identify and track malware beaconing outbound to its command and control (C2) channel via memory forensics, registry analysis, and network connection residue.
- Determine how the breach occurred by identifying the beachhead and spear phishing attack mechanisms.
- Target advanced adversary anti-forensics techniques like hidden and time-stomped malware, along with utility-ware used to move in the network and maintain an attacker's presence.
- Use memory analysis, incident response, and threat hunting tools in the SIFT Workstation to detect hidden processes, malware, attacker command lines, rootkits, network connections, and more.
- Track user and attacker activity second-by-second on the system you are analyzing through in-depth timeline and super-timeline analysis.
- Recover data cleared using anti-forensics techniques via Volume Shadow Copy and Restore Point analysis.
- Identify lateral movement and pivots within your enterprise, showing how attackers transition from system to system without detection.
- Understand how the attacker can acquire legitimate credentials - including domain administrator rights - even in a locked-down environment.
- Track data movement as the attackers collect critical data and shift them to exfiltration collection points.
- Recover and analyze archives and .rar files used by APT-like attackers to exfiltrate sensitive data from the enterprise network.
- Use collected data to perform effective remediation across the entire enterprise.
Hands-on Advanced Persistent Threat Enterprise Intrusion Lab
One of the biggest complaints you hear in the digital forensics, threat hunting, and incident response community is the lack of realistic intrusion data. Most real-world intrusion data are simply too sensitive to be shared.
The FOR508 course authors created a realistic scenario based on experiences surveyed from a panel of responders who regularly combat targeted APT attacks. They helped review and guide the targeted attack "script" used to create the scenario. The result is an incredibly rich and realistic attack scenario across multiple enterprise systems. This APT attack lab forms the basis for training during the week. The network was set up to mimic a standard "protected" enterprise network using standard compliance checklists:
- Full auditing turned on per recommended Federal Information Security Management Act guidelines
- Windows domain controller (DC) set up and configured; DC hardened similarly to what is seen in real enterprise networks
- Systems installed with the real software on them that is used (Office, Adobe, Skype, Tweetdeck, Email, Dropbox, Firefox, Chrome)
- Fully patched systems (patches are automatically installed)
- Enterprise incident response agents
- Enterprise A/V and on-scan capability based on the Department of Defense√Ę¬¬s Host-based Security System
- Endpoint Protection Software - Anti-virus, Anti-spyware, Safe surfing, Anti-spam, Device Control, Onsite Management, Host Intrusion Prevention (HIPS)
- Firewall only allows inbound port 25 and outbound ports 25, 80, 443
This exercise and challenge are used to show real adversary traces across host systems, system memory, hibernation/pagefiles, and more:
- Phase 1 - Spear phishing attacks and malware C2 beacon installation
- Phase 2 - Lateral movement to other systems, malware utilities download, installation of additional beacons, and obtaining domain admin credentials
- Phase 3 - Search for intellectual property, profile network, dump email, dump enterprise hashes
- Phase 4 - Collect data to exfiltrate and copy to staging system. Archive data using .rar and a complex passphrase
- Phase 5 - Exfiltrate .rar files from staging server, perform cleanup on staging server
Press & Reviews
"THE SANS508 COURSE EXCEEDED MY EXPECTATIONS IN EVERY WAY. IT PROVIDED ME THE SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE, AND TOOLS TO EFFECTIVELY RESPOND TO AND HANDLE APTS AND OTHER ENTERPRISE WIDE THREATS." -Josh Moulin NSTEC/NNSA/DOE
"THE EXAMPLES IN THE COURSE RELATE TO WHAT I NEED TO KNOW TO DEAL WITH REAL WORLD THREATS." -Tim Weaver, Digital Mtn. Inc.
"I WAS SURPRISED AND AMAZED AT HOW EASY IT IS TO DO MEMORY ANALYSIS AND HOW HELPFUL IT IS." - Brian Dugay, Apple
"THE LEVEL OF DETAIL IS AMAZING. THE METHODOLOGY IS CLEARLY EFFECTIVE AT FINDING PERTINENT ARTIFACTS." - Anonymous
"I'VE TAKEN OTHER NETWORK INTRUSION CLASSES BUT NOTHING THIS IN-DEPTH. THE CLASS IS OUTSTANDING!" - Craig Goldsmith, FBI
"CUTTING EDGE EXPERTISE TAUGHT BY WORLD CLASS EXPERTS." -Joseph Murray, Deloitte
"I AM A DIFFERENT MAN AS A RESULT OF THIS COURSE." - Travis Farral, XTO Energy
"ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE IS USEFUL, BUT THIS COURSE PROVIDES THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF A GROWING TREND." -Erik Musick, Arkansas State Police
"THIS IS A GREAT CLASS AND SHOULD BE MANDATORY FOR ANYONE IN THE FORENSIC FIELD. GREAT JOB, ROB!" -Mark Merchant, State of Alaska/State Security Office
"COME PREPARED TO LEARN A LOT." -Todd Black Lee, The Golden 1 Credit Union
"YOU CAN DELETE IT, HIDE IT, RENAME IT, BUT WE WILL FIND IT." -Edward Fuller, Department of Defense
"GREAT COURSE! THIS NOT ONLY HELPS ME IN FORENSICS BUT ALSO IN CREATING USE-CASES FOR OUR OTHER INTRUSION ANALYSIS TOOLS." -Joseph Murray, Deloitte
"IT IS HARD TO REALLY SAY SOMETHING THAT WILL PROPERLY CONVEY THE AMOUNT OF MENTAL GROWTH I HAVE EXPERIENCED THIS WEEK." -Travis Farral, XTI Energy
"EXCELLENT COURSE, INVALUABLE HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE TAUGHT BY PEOPLE WHO NOT ONLY KNOW THE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES, BUT KNOW THEIR QUIRKINESS THROUGH PRACTICAL, REAL-WORLD EXPERIENCE." -John Alexander, US Army
"THIS COURSE (FOR508) REALLY TAKES YOU FROM 0-60 IN UNDERSTANDING THE CORE CONCEPTS OF FORENSICS, ESPECIALLY THE FILE SYSTEM." -Matthew Harvey, U.S. Department of Justice
"IF YOU NEED TO TRACK DOWN WHAT HAPPENED IN YOUR ENVIRONMENTS, THIS IS A MUST HAVE COURSE!" -Fran Moniz, American National Insurance
"THE CAPSTONE EXERCISE IS AWESOME, PUTS TRACKING THE APT INTO PRACTICE." -Gavin Worden, SD-LECC
"BEST FORENSICS TRAINING I'VE HAD SO FAR. I THOUGHT THE SOME OTHERS COURSES WERE GREAT BUT 508 IS A LOT MORE CURRENT AND APPLICABLE TO THE REAL WORLD! EXCELLENT COURSE AND INSTRUCTOR OVERALL!" -Marc Bleicher, Bit9
"THE MORE I PROGRESS THROUGH THE COURSE, THE MORE I REALIZE JUST HOW MUCH CAPACITY THERE IS TO PRODUCE ANSWERS TO TOUGH QUESTIONS. WHERE I MIGHT NOT HAVE FOUND SUPPORTING EVIDENCE IN PAST CASES, I FEEL I HAVE SO MANY NEW AVENUES TO EXPLORE. A REAL EYE-OPENER. I ALSO GREATLY APPRECIATE THE FOCUS ON INCIDENT RESPONSE." - Dave Ockwell-Jenner, SITA
"I HAVE ALREADY USED SEVERAL OF THE TOOLS/TECHNIQUES FROM THE COURSE WITH PAST-CASE EVIDENCE TO UNCOVER THINGS I DID NOT PREVIOUSLY KNOW." - Dave Ockwell-Jenner, SITA
"MY SOC FOCUSES A LOT ON INCIDENT RESPONSE AND QUICK FORENSICS, SO THE COURSE MATERIAL IS EXTREMELY VALUABLE." - Anonymous
"I ROUTINELY PERFORM LIVE MEMORY CAPTURES AND HAVE GONE THROUGH THEM LOOKING FOR THE OBVIOUS, BUT I HAD NO IDEA, UNTIL FOR508, HOW MANY ARTIFACTS ARE CONTAINED IN RAM." - M Scott Saul, FBI
"THE SANS INSTITUTE IS CURRENTLY THE LEADER IN THE COMMERCIAL IR AND COMPUTER FORENSIC TRAINING MARKET. THEY HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF QUALITY COURSES." - Luttgens, Jason; Pepe, Matthew; Mandia, Kevin. Incident Response & Computer Forensics, Third Edition - July 2014
"YOU HAVE THE CONTENT WHICH IS CLOSE TO REAL WHEN YOU HAVE THE INSTRUCTOR THAT GOES INTO A LOT OF REAL WORLD EXAMPLES. JUST GREAT." - Anonymous
"FOR508 COMBINED WITH FOR572 SHOWS A COMPLETE PICTURE FROM DISK SIDE TO NETWORK SIDE." - Dow Shirley, Energy Solutions
"MOST IN-DEPTH, STATE OF THE ART IR COURSE I CAN IMAGINE. FIRST TIME I THINK DEFENSE CAN ACTUALLY GAIN AN ADVANTAGE. THANK YOU." - Kai Thomsen, AUDI AG
FULL REVIEW AND WRITE UP OF FOR508 BY DAVID NIDES, KPMG-
PRESS ARTICLES ABOUT THE NEW FOR508 COURSE:
- CSO ONLINE: Advanced Persistent Threats can be beaten, says expert Detection is key, but how you respond to APTs is equally important
- SECURITY BISTRO: Understanding and defeating APT, Part 1: Waking up to the who and why behind APT
- SECURITY BISTRO: Understanding and defeating APT, Part 2: Fighting the 'forever war' against implacable foes
Should I take SANS 408 or 508? (part 1) - http://digitalforensicstips.com/category/training_reviews/
SANS 508 Compared to 408 Part Two (part 2) - http://digitalforensicstips.com/2013/04/sans-508-compared-to-408-part-two-plus-a-side-of-610/
Statements From Our Authors
"In describing the advanced persistent threat (APT) and advanced adversaries, many experts have said, 'There are people smarter than you, who have more resources than you, and who are coming for you. Good luck with that.' They were not joking. The results over the past several years clearly indicate that hackers employed by nation-states and organized crime are racking up success after success. The APT has compromised hundreds of organizations. Organized crime organizations using botnets are exploiting Automated Clearing House (ACH) fraud daily. Similar groups are penetrating banks and merchants, stealing credit card data. Fortune 500 companies are beginning to detail data breaches and hacks in their annual stockholder reports.
"In other words, the enemy is getting better and bolder, and their success rate is impressive.
"We can stop them, but to do so, we need to field more sophisticated incident responders and digital forensics investigators. We need lethal digital forensics experts who can detect and eradicate advanced threats immediately. A properly trained incident responder could be the only defense your organization has left during a compromise. Forensics 508: Advanced Digital Forensics, Incident Response, and Threat Hunting is crucial training for you to become the lethal forensicator who can step up to these advanced threats. The enemy is good. We are better. This course will help you become one of the best."
- Rob Lee
"We live in a world of unimaginable amounts of data stored on immensely large and complicated networks. Our adversaries use this complexity against us to slice through our defenses and take virtually anything they want, anytime they want it. While this is our current state, it will not be our future. Incident response is at an inflection point. Old models are being upgraded to make defenders more effective and nimble in response to more sophisticated and aggressive attackers. The most successful incident response teams are evolving rapidly due to near-daily interaction with adversaries. New tools and techniques are being developed, providing better visibility and making the network more defensible. There is an increasing number of success stories, with organizations quickly identifying intrusions and rapidly remediating them.
"We created this course to build upon those successes. Like the field itself, the course is continuously updated, bringing the latest advances into the classroom. Whether you are just moving into the incident response field or are already leading hunt teams, FOR508 facilitates learning from others' experiences and develops the necessary skills to take you to the next level."
- Chad Tilbury
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*CPE/CMU credits not offered for the SelfStudy delivery method