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Intrusion Prevention

Featuring 38 Papers as of November 11, 2016

  • Network Inspection of Duplicate Packets by Randy Devlin - November 11, 2016 

    Network Intrusion Analysis enables a security analyst to review network traffic for protocol conformity and anomalous behavior. The analyst’s goal is to detect network intrusion activity in near-real time. The detection provides details as to who the attackers are, the attack type, and potential remediation responses. Is it possible that a network security stack could render the analyst “blind” to detecting intrusions? This paper will review architecture, traffic flow, and inspection processes. Architecture review validates proper sensor placement for inspection. Traffic flow analyzes sources and destinations, approved applications, and known traffic patterns. Inspection process evaluates protocols and packet specific details. The combination of these activities can reveal scenarios that potentially result in limitations of network security inspection and analysis.

  • Forcepoint Review: Effective Measure of Defense Analyst Paper
    by Eric Cole, PhD - November 9, 2016 

    Effective security is all about the quality of the solution, not the quantity of products. Indeed, buying more products can make the problem worse. All of the major breaches over the last several years have had one thing in common: Multiple products were issuing alerts, but there were too many alerts and not enough people charged with monitoring and responding to them. When that is the case, putting more products in place spreads current resources even thinner--the problem gets worse, not better. This paper explains the advantages of an integrated defense-in-depth approach to security and looks at how Forcepoint's integrated solution suite meets the needs of such an approach.

  • Mimikatz Overview, Defenses and Detection Masters
    by James Mulder - February 29, 2016 

    Over the past decade or so, we have seen hacker tools mature from tedious bit flipping to robust attack frameworks.

  • Mimikatz Overview, Defenses and Detection Masters
    by James Mulder - February 29, 2016 

    Over the past decade or so, we have seen hacker tools mature from tedious bit flipping to robust attack frameworks.

  • Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems Cheat Sheet: Choosing the Best Solution, Common Misconfigurations, Evasion Techniques, and Recommendations. Masters
    by Phillip Bosco - January 25, 2016 

    There are many decisions a company must make while choosing an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) or Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) for their infrastructure. Pricing questions will arise to determine if it will fit into their budget.

  • How to Leverage PowerShell to Create a User- Friendly Version of WinDump Masters
    by Robert Adams - January 18, 2016 

    Security professionals rely on a myriad of tools to accomplish their job. This is no different than the toolboxes that plumbers, electricians, and other trade professionals carry with them every day.

  • Poaching: Hunting Without Permission by David Switzer - December 23, 2015 

    In the parlance of information security, hunting is proactively searching out a problem. An intrusion detection system (IDS) can miss a 0-day, so proactive and interactive hunting for indicators of compromise (IOCs) can be more productive than simply relying on automated tools.

  • Intrusion Prevention with HPE TippingPoint Analyst Paper
    by Dave Shackleford - December 7, 2015 

    A review by Dave Shackleford of HPEs TippingPoint 2600NX IPS and its management platform. It examines the device's analytic and operational features and discusses the integration of such devices with security information and event management (SIEM) systems as wells as external threat information.

  • Practical approaches for MTCP Security Masters
    by Joshua Lewis - October 2, 2015 

    Multi-path TCP (MPTCP) is an emerging IETF standard for providing connection resilience and bandwidth aggregation. MPTCP evolves the existing TCP protocol by allowing multiple TCP flows for a TCP session. This provides exciting new possibilities for mobile devices that can maintain TCP sessions as connection paths are added or dropped, and multi-homed servers that allow TCP sessions to take advantage of a mesh topology. However, current network security monitoring infrastructure solutions cannot appropriately inspect MPTCP connections, leaving significant intrusion detection and data loss blind spots. This paper will discuss practical approaches for MPTCP security.

  • Open Source IDS High Performance Shootout by George Khalil - February 17, 2015 

    As early as 1972, the U.S. Air Force was becoming increasingly aware of computer security problems (Bruneau, 2001).

  • Point of Sale Systems and Security: Executive Summary Analyst Paper
    by Wes Whitteker - November 20, 2014 

    The last year has seen scores of point of sale (POS) systems compromised by bad actors. In many cases, these environments were PCI-DSS compliant at the time of compromise. Executives seeking to protect their organizations and POS systems from compromise need to look beyond PCI-DSS and adopt a proactive "offense must inform defense" approach to POS security.

  • MalwareD: A study on network and host based defenses that prevent malware from accomplishing its goals. by Dave Walters - September 17, 2014 

    Malware is an ever-growing problem on the Internet. Organizations struggle to prevent, detect, and responds to malware threats.

  • Insider Threats in Law Enforcement Analyst Paper
    by Dr. Eric Cole - September 4, 2014 

    Based on the valuable information they have at their disposal, law enforcement agencies are among those that are prime targets for advanced attacks. While network protection can be extensive and sophisticated, the exploitation of insiders poses a serious threat for illegal access to these agencies.

  • Killing Advanced Threats in Their Tracks: An Intelligent Approach to Attack Prevention Analyst Paper
    by Tony Sager - July 29, 2014 

    All attacks follow certain stages. By observing those stages during an attack progression and then creating immediate protections to block those attack methods, organizations can achieve a level of closed-loop intelligence that can block and protect across this attack kill chain. This paper explains the many steps in the kill chain, along with how to detect unknown attacks by integrating intelligence into sensors and management consoles.

  • Health Care Cyberthreat Report: Widespread Compromises Detected, Compliance Nightmare on Horizon Analyst Paper
    by Barbara Filkins - March 6, 2014 

    The use of threat intelligence to improve the security of information systems in the health care industry.

  • Active Security Or: How I learned to stop worrying and use IPS with Incident handling by Doug Brown - January 9, 2014 

    Beyond the obvious nomenclature for viruses and worms, several lessons can also be gleaned from the world of epidemiology and applied to information security.

  • Open Source Host Based Intrusion Detections System (OHIDS) by Tom Webb - September 6, 2013 

    Detecting and analyzing intrusion based solely on network traffic gives you an incomplete picture, especially if you are lacking full packet captures or if you have a large number of mobile users who do not always use your Internet connection.

  • Using DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) to Protect your Email Reputation by Chris Murphy - August 20, 2013 

    Domain Keys Identified Mail (DKIM) was developed as a successor to the DomainKeys framework originally created by Yahoo!

  • Web Log Analysis and Defense with Mod_Rewrite Masters
    by Rick Wanner - March 12, 2013 

    Anybody who has been tasked with defending a production web server has quickly realized that the volume of logs generated, often measuring in gigabytes or terabytes a day, defies analysis even with the use of a good event management solution.

  • Beating the IPS by Michael Dyrmose - March 12, 2013 

    Firewalls and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) are core equipment in any enterprise or organization's network infrastructure.

  • An Analysis of the Snort Data Acquisition Modules by Christopher Murphy - November 8, 2012 

    Snort is an open-source Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that runs on Linux, UNIX, BSD variants and Windows.

  • Mitigating Browser Based Exploits through Behavior Based Defenses and Hardware Virtualization Masters
    by Joseph Faust - October 7, 2011 

    There does not seem to be a day or week that goes by that one does not encounter a headline story about an organization being compromised and infiltrated by attackers.

  • Interception and Automating Blocking of Malicious Traffic Based on NDIS Intermediate Driver by Lee Ling Chuan - June 30, 2011 

    Over the past years, the number of malicious programs developed for illegal purpose has grown rapidly. The Monthly Malware Statistics, January 2011 (Zakorzhevsky, 2011) by Kaspersky Lab announced that there are over ten million viruses in circulation, most developed in January 2011.

  • Animal Farm: Protection From Client-side Attacks by Rendering Content With Python and Squid. Masters
    by TJ OConnor - February 22, 2011 

    Client-side attacks target vulnerabilities in applications and continue to grow at a faster rate than operating system or server-side attacks (SANS, 2010). Server-side applications that reside behind several server-side controls, and hopefully, intrusion detection and prevention systems. In contrast, client-side attacks target the application on the end-user machine. End-user workstations typically have considerably less protection and intrusion detection mechanisms than the finer grain server-side applications, and they have proven to be an attractive target for attackers. As a result, client-side vulnerabilities have offset server-side vulnerabilities since 2005 (CORE, 2010).

  • Reducing Organizational Risk Through Virtual Patching Masters
    by Joseph Faust - January 11, 2011 

    Software patching for IT Departments across the organizational landscape has always been an integral part of maintaining functional, usable and stable software. Historically the traditional patch cycle has been focused on fixing or resolving issues which affect functionality. In recent years, with the advancement of more sophisticated and targeted threats which are occurring in quicker cycles, this focus is dramatically changing. (Risk Assessment – Cisco, n.d.; Executive Office of The United States, 2005) . Corporations and Government now have a greater understanding of potential losses and expenses incurred by not maintaining application security and are moving towards an increased focus on patching and security (Epstein, Grow & Tschang, 2008). With organizations’ reputations, consumer confidence and corporate secrets at risk, corporations and government are recognizing the need to shift and address vulnerabilities at a much faster pace than they historically have done so (Chan, 2004). Over roughly the last ten years, the length of time between the documentation of a given vulnerability in a piece of software and the development of an actual exploit that can take advantage of the weakness in the application, has decreased tremendously. According to Andrew Jaquith, senior analyst at Yankee Group, the average time between vulnerability discovery and the release of exploit code is less than one week. (“Shrinking time from,” 2006). It has also been identified that “99% of intrusions result from exploitation of known vulnerabilities or configuration errors where countermeasures were available” ("Risk reduction and.," 2010) . Clearly these statistics alone can prove daunting for many businesses trying to keep pace and maintain proper defenses against the bad guys.

  • Detecting and Responding to Data Link Layer Attacks Masters
    by TJ OConnor - October 15, 2010 

    In this paper, we examine techniques for identifying signatures and anomalies associated with attacks against the data link layer on both wired and wireless networks. Methods for signature-based detection and anomaly-based detection are not new. Intrusion detection systems such as SNORT are quite capable of detecting some of the known data link layer attacks and include a mechanism for integrating Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) solutions. This paper does not advocate against the use of these solutions in organizations. What we present can augment your existing capabilities by detecting attacks that may be blind to your IDS.

  • Smart IDS - Hybrid LaBrea Tarpit by Cristian Ruvalcaba - December 28, 2009 

    The importance of IDS in corporate defense is seen as an ever growing necessity. Major strides have been made for numerous IDS tools, but some have seen a stalemate. The next evolutionary step in IDS would involve the concept of a 'Smart Intrusion Detection System (IDS)', one that generates signatures. The question of how to generate these signatures becomes instrumental, and can involve a number of different components. In this case, it could involve a tool that uses a hybrid LaBrea concept.

  • A Multi-Perspective View of PHP Remote File Include Attacks by Dennis Schwarz - November 10, 2009 

    This paper describes the mechanics of a RFI (remote file include) attack by doing a code analysis and an attack walk through on a vulnerable application. Detecting an attack is discussed by writing sample IDS signatures and looking at related log files.

  • Efficiently Deducing IDS False Positives Using System Profiling by Michael Karwaski - November 9, 2009 

    Security Whitepaper: How to create a simple, static inventory database and compare security alerts to see if they relate to the host in question. This will allow for greater visibility into which alerts are actually relevant to the end users network.

  • Era of Spybots - A Secure Design Solution Using Intrusion Prevention Systems by Siva Kumar - October 23, 2008 

    This paper is presented in the form of a case study. It utilizes a fictitious company, GIAC Enterprises, a growing small retail company whose clients span the nation. In early spring GIACE was compromised with the Spybot worm which caused a business outage.

  • Intrusion Prevention with L7-Filter by Rui Santos - August 19, 2008 

    The possibility of using L7-filter as an Intrusion Prevention tool.

  • Intrusion Detection and Prevention In-sourced or Out-sourced by Vince Fitzparick - July 30, 2008 

    The goal of this paper is to compare the different aspects of in-sourced and outsourced intrusion detection and prevention solutions in the effort to properly ascertain the benefits and risks, thus helping an organization to make an informed decision when considering outsourcing intrusion detection.

  • Host Intrusion Prevention Systems and Beyond by Jonathan Chee - June 24, 2008 

    Host Intrusion Prevention Systems (HIPS) are becoming more of a necessity in any environment, home or enterprise. Host Intrusion Prevention Systems protect hosts from the network layer all the way up to the application layer, against known and unknown malicious attacks.

  • Network IDS & IPS Deployment Strategies by Nicholas Pappas - April 11, 2008 

    Information systems are more capable today than ever before. Society increasingly relies on computing environments ranging from simple home networks, commonly attached to high speed Internet connections, to the largest enterprise networks spanning the entire globe. Filling one's tax return, shopping online, banking online, or even reading news headlines posted on the Internet are all so convenient. This increased reliance and convenience, coupled with the fact that attacks are concurrently becoming more prevalent has consequently elevated the need to have security controls in place to minimize risk as much as possible.

  • A Design for Building an IPS Using Open Source Products by Mike Smith - October 30, 2006 

    The goal of the research was to develop a design for an IPS that could be applied to any small to medium sized network.

  • Intrusion Detection on a Large Network by Jason Botwick - April 8, 2004 

    This paper will describe in detail the steps for setting up and managing an intrusion detection system across a large corporate network. It will begin with a discussion of the potential problems and benefits of the use of a NIDS on a large network.

  • A Summary of DoS/DDoS Prevention, Monitoring and Mitigation Techniques in a Service Provider Environment by Michael Glenn - September 26, 2003 

    This paper covers Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS) and discusses techniques to prevent attacks including good security policies, new/updated product security testing, patch management, spoofed packet dropping (uRPF) and firewall/IDS/IPS deployment in a service provider environment.

  • Packet Level Normalisation by Ian Martin - July 29, 2003 

    This paper proposes that any Signature Based Passive Network Intrusion Detection (NID) deployment is incomplete without an 'In-line' 'Packet Level Normaliser' [1].

Most of the computer security white papers in the Reading Room have been written by students seeking GIAC certification to fulfill part of their certification requirements and are provided by SANS as a resource to benefit the security community at large. SANS attempts to ensure the accuracy of information, but papers are published "as is". Errors or inconsistencies may exist or may be introduced over time as material becomes dated. If you suspect a serious error, please contact webmaster@sans.org.

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Masters - This paper was created by a SANS Technology Institute student as part of their Master's curriculum.