What You Will Learn
Find the Storm in the Cloud
FOR509: Enterprise Cloud Forensics and Incident Response will help you:
- Understand forensic data only available in the cloud
- Implement best practices in cloud logging for DFIR
- Properly handle rapid triage in cloud environments
- Learn how to leverage Azure, AWS and Google Cloud resources to gather evidence
- Understand what Microsoft 365 has available for analysts to review
- Learn how to move your forensic process to the cloud for fast processing where the data lives
With Enterprise Cloud Forensics examiners will learn how each of the major cloud service providers (Microsoft Azure, Amazon AWS and Google Cloud) are extending analysts capabilities with new evidence sources not available in traditional on-premise investigations. From cloud equivalents of network traffic monitoring to direct hypervisor interaction for evidence preservation, forensics is not dead. It is reborn with new technologies and capabilities.
The new world does not end there. More organizations are moving critical resources into the cloud with Microsoft 365. Examiners no longer have direct access to the email servers and datastores for recovering actions; which means they need to learn the new methods available to them to recreate the same data. But why stop at recreation? These new platforms allow us to extend our reach to data we could not easily access before, which when properly configured, can allow for detection and remediation faster than ever before.
The assumption that a change in where or how data is stored always seems to lead to the false assumption that forensics is dead. With the cloud, forensics is given new capabilities and depth that do not exist in the on-premise world. Learn to preserve, configure and examine new sources of evidence that only exist in the Cloud. Learn how to bring your examination into the cloud and how to triage within the same environment. Constantly updated, the Enterprise Cloud Forensics course (FOR509) addresses today's need to bring examiners up to speed with the rapidly changing world of enterprise cloud environments, where their most valuable data is being uploaded to.
Numerous hands-on labs throughout the course will allow examiners to access evidence generated based on the most common incidents and investigations. Examiners will learn where to pull data from and how to analyze it to find evil.
Before, during, and after an investigation cloud resources are constantly changing, FOR509: Enterprise Cloud Forensics will train you and your team to turn on the logs you need for the future, work with the data you have today, and prepare to automate for tomorrow.
FOR509 ENTERPRISE CLOUD FORENSICS WILL PREPARE YOUR TEAM TO:
- Learn and master the tools, techniques, and procedures necessary to effectively locate, identify, and collect data no matter where it is located
- Identify and utilize new data only available from Cloud environments
- Quickly parse and filter large data sets, using scalable technologies such as the Elastic Stack
- Learn how to profile attackers in different cloud environments
- Understand what data is available in different cloud environments
FOR509 ENTERPRISE CLOUD FORENSICS COURSE TOPICS
- Cloud Infrastructure and IR data sources
- Microsoft 365
- AWS Incident Response
- Azure Incident Response
- GCP Incident Response
WHAT YOU WILL RECEIVE
- SOF-ELK(R) Virtual Machine - a publicly available appliance running the Elastic Stack and the course author's custom set of configurations and dashboards. The VM is preconfigured to ingest cloud logs from AWS, Azure, and GCP, and will be used during the class to help students wade through the hundreds of millions of records they are likely to encounter during a typical investigation.
- Realistic case data to examine during class.
- USB drive(s) loaded with case examples, tools, and documentation.
- Exercise book with detailed step-by-step instructions and examples to help you master cloud forensics
WHAT TO TAKE NEXT
Syllabus (24 CPEs)
There is a universe of data out there to be discovered.
Before you can begin exploring the universe of cloud data you must learn where and how it exists. In this section you will learn about the most popular cloud architectures (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) and how each changes your investigative possibilities. We will understand what kind of logging and data access is provided by each cloud architecture and how to extract and process the data.
We will introduce SOF-ELK an open source distribution made for enterprise and network forensics and analysis that easily extends into cloud forensics. We then go into Microsoft 365 which is a cloud-based service that provides the Microsoft Office desktop suite including applications such as Excel and Word. In addition, Microsoft 365 implements a number of communications and collaboration tools such are Exchange, SharePoint, Skype, and Teams.
LAB 0: Install SOF-ELK VM
Prior to the class, students are expected to install the SOF-ELK VM.
LAB 1.1: Visualize data in SOF-ELK
In this lab students will learn how to search and visualize data in Kibana. They will also learn how to create their own dashboard. Kibana dashboards allow analysts to display summarized statistics and predefined filters for specific scenarios.
LAB 1.2: Find the source of a BEC
Students will review Unified Audit Logs in SOF-ELK to find the source of a business email compromise. Utilizing user agents, IP geo location and source IP addresses students will be able to profile and identify hostile agents.
MODULE 1.1: Whats the Cloud
- Purpose of the course
- Cloud benefits
- Types of clouds
- Shared responsibility model
- Log Hierarchy
- Class focus
- Why are we not using the cloud directly?
MODULE 1.2: Introducing SOF-ELK
- SOF-ELK architecture
- Filtering in Kibana
MODULE 1.3: Microsoft 365 Unified Audit Log (UAL)
- Connecting a PowerShell session to Microsoft 365
- Properties of the UAL
- Searching the UAL
- UAL Workloads
- Special example: Exchange workload
- Mail clients
- Azure Active Directory
Now that we understand whats possible in the Cloud and the new DFIR evidence sources that exist for us, its time to turn to the market leader in Cloud services. In this section we will explore how AWS can be used for the responder, how to deploy your own analysis system into your region, the new and relevant log sources for your investigation and how to bring it all together in lab scenarios designed to help you quickly solve the most common AWS cases.
LAB 2.1: Reviewing CloudTrail Logs
In this lab students will make use of exported logs from CloudTrail to identify possible account takeovers. Reviewing multiple scenarios of console access and api key access students will learn how to find and track these attacks.
LAB 2.2: Finding Rogue VMs
In this lab students will make use of exported CloudTrail logs to locate newly created EC2 instances of different types created by attackers.
LAB 2.3: VPC Flow Log Analysis
In this lab students will use VPC Flow logs to find evidence of large data exfiltration. As a bonus, students can also attempt to find beacon traffic to define the indicators of compromise.
LAB 2.4: S3 Analysis
In this lab students will make use of S3 Access logs to find evidence of data exfiltration from S3 buckets.
LAB 2.5: Tracking Lateral Movement
In this lab students will use multiple log sources in order to follow an incident from initial IAM exposure to data access.
LAB 2.6: Container Investigations
In this lab students will use CloudTrail and VPC logs to track a breached Kubernetes cluster and track the incident.
MODULE 2.1: Understanding AWS
- Shared Responsibility Model
- CloudTrail access methods
- CloudTrail pricing
- Threat Hunting in CloudTrail
MODULE 2.2: Networking, VMs, and Storage
- Virtual Compute
- EC2 types
- EC2 CloudTrail logs
- Virtual Storage
- EBS types
- EBS CloudTrail Logs
- Snapshot Pricing
- Snapshot CloudTrail Logs
- EFS types
- EFS CloudTrail Logs
- Virtual Networks
- VPC Flow Logs
- VPC Flow Log Pricing
- S3 Buckets
- Methods of Access
- DFIR Usage
- S3 Access Logs
- S3 Access Logs Pricing
- Route 53
MODULE 2.3: Log sources for IR
- CloudTrail enrichment
- Athena Pricing
- Cloudwatch Logs pricing
- Cloudwatch Logs Insights
- GuardDuty integration
- Security Hub
- AWS Detective
MODULE 2.4: Event Drive Response
- Step Functions
- API Gateway
- Event Triggers
- Event Driven DFIR Automation
MODULE 2.5: In-cloud IR
- Uploading IR VMs
- AMIs and IR
- Docker Registry
Downloading machines images
- Usually a bad idea
- Capturing Memory
- Accessing Disks
- Isolating hosts
- Spinning up quarantined clones
- Locating the region where the compromised system exists
- Cloudtrail Logs
- Most common investigations
- Cloudtrail Logs
One of the most popular cloud providers for large enterprises is the Microsoft Azure cloud. Azure offers an impressive array of services and with that comes numerous data sources for us to explore. In this section we will learn about the various Azure activity and diagnostics logs. Finally, we will find out how to deploy our own analysis tools in the cloud.
LAB 3.1: Using SOF-ELK with Azure Logs
In this lab students will explore the azure-* index and discover the users and machines of pymtechlabs.com.
LAB 3.2: AAD Password Spray
In this lab students will gain experience with the Azure Active Directory logs and identify a password spray attack.
LAB 3.3: Tracking Resource Creations
In this lab students will see an example of virtual machines being created for the purpose of crypto mining.
LAB 3.4: Detecting Data Exfiltration
In this lab students will track data exfiltration through NSG flow logs and storage logs.
MODULE 3.1: Understanding Azure
- Microsoft Azure Global Footprint
- Tenant & Subscriptions
- Azure Resource Manager
- Resource Groups
- Key Resources for DFIR
- Azure Resource ID Strings
- Role Based Access Control
- Build a DFIR Workstation
MODULE 3.2: Networking, VMs, and Storage
- Azure Compute
- VM Types
- Case Study: crypto mining VM
- Azure Virtual Network
- Network Security Group
- Managed Disk
- Accessing Microsoft Azure
MODULE 3.3: Log sources for IR
- Sources of logs
- Log Analytics workspace
- Tenant logs
- Sign-in logs
- Successful and failed login examples
- Audit log
- Log analytics queries
- Case study: Impossible logins
- Azure Storage Explorer
- Export to JSON
- Import into SOF-ELK
- Event Hubs
- Graph API
- Subscription logs
- Log schema
- Viewing the activity log in the portal
- Log analytics examples
- Storage account and event hubs
- Import into SOF-ELK
- Resource logs
- NSG Flow Log
- Traffic Analytics
- Import into SOF-ELK
MODULE 3.4: Virtual Machine Logs
- Windows Agents
- Windows Azure Diagnostics (WAD)
- WAD Event Log Table
- Importing into SOF-ELK
- Search for User Login
- Visualization example
- Linux Logs
- Importing into SOF-ELK
- VM Insights
MODULE 3.5: In-cloud IR
- Imaging a drive in the cloud
- In-Cloud investigations
- Create a forensic VM
- Run forensic tools
- Forensic VM portability
- Azure Defender
- Microsoft Defender for Identity
- Azure Sentinel
Google Cloud Platform (GCP) offers many services and fundamentally changes how identity access management is treated compared to AWS and Azure, along with building in a lot of security and evidence items that are extremely useful to an incident response team. Using a combination of the GCP platform, its built-in auditing, agent-based logging, and external log analysis tools like ELK. This section will teach DFIR professionals with limited knowledge of GCP how to conduct investigations into common attacks on GCP.
LAB 4.1: GCP IAM and Access Tracking
Using the GCP Audit Logs, students will learn to profile, analyze, and summarize login sources with Kibana and GCP logs.
LAB4.2: Google VM Logging Agent - Agent Log Analysis
Students will learn about teh logs produced by GCP's Agent Logs and how to use them for analyzing a compromised system VM within GCP.
LAB 4.3: Storage Exfil Abuse
Students will learn about the type of logs available to track GCP Storage Bucket exfiltration, along with additional techniques to track exfiltration when additional auditing logs are not enabled.
LAB 4.4: Network Forensics in GCP
Students will learn about the networking logs and data available with GCP and how to use this evidence to conduct Network Forensics for a GCP environment.
MODULE 4.1: Understanding GCP
- GCP Resources
- Pricing Structure
- GCP IAM
- Challenges with IAM
MODULE 4.2: Log Sources, Collection & Log Routing
- GCP Log Explorer
- Log Explorer Queries
- Log Routing
- Log Storage
- Logging Pipelines
- Logging Exporting
MODULE 4.3: VM & Storage Investigations
- Compute Overview
- VM Snapshotting
- Google Logging Agent
- Logging Agent in AWS
- GCP Storage Buckets
MODULE 4.4: GCP Network Forensics
- GCP Network DFIR Services Overview
- GCP VPC Overview
- VPC Networking
- VPC Flow Logs
- Firewall Rules & Logging
- GCP Packet Mirroring
FOR509 is an Intermediate to Advanced course that focuses on Cloud infrastructure and log analysis. This class teaches students how to make use of cloud provider created data that augments, replaces or extends the artifacts they already learned about in prior SANS classes.
Students may benefit from having taken
- FOR500: Windows Forensic Analysis
- FOR508: Advanced Incident Response, Threat Hunting, and Digital Forensics
- SEC488: Cloud Security Essentials
or having relevant previous experience.
Important! Bring your own system configured according to these instructions!
A properly configured system is required to fully participate in this course. If you do not carefully read and follow these instructions, you will likely leave the class unsatisfied because you will not be able to participate in hands-on exercises that are essential to this course. Therefore, we strongly urge you to arrive with a system meeting all the requirements specified for the course.
This is common sense, but we will say it anyway. Back up your system before class. Better yet, do not have any sensitive data stored on the system. SANS can't responsible for your system or data.
MANDATORY FOR509 SYSTEM HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:
- CPU: 64-bit Intel i5/i7 (4th generation+) - x64 bit 2.0+ GHz processor or more recent processor is mandatory for this class (Important - Please Read: a 64-bit system processor is mandatory)
- It is critical that your CPU and operating system support 64-bit so that our 64-bit guest virtual machine will run on your laptop. VMware provides a free tool for Windows that will detect whether or not your host supports 64-bit guest virtual machines. For further troubleshooting, this article also provides good instructions for Windows users to determine more about the CPU and OS capabilities. For Macs, please use this support page from Apple to determine 64-bit capability.
- BIOS settings must be set to enable virtualization technology, such as "Intel-VT". Be absolutely certain you can access your BIOS if it is password protected, in case changes are necessary. Test it!
- 16 GB (Gigabytes) of RAM or higher is mandatory for this class (Important - Please Read: 16 GB of RAM or higher of RAM is mandatory and minimum.
- USB 3.0 Type-A port is required. At least one open and working USB 3.0 Type-A port is required. (A Type-C to Type-A adapter may be necessary for newer laptops.) (Note: Some endpoint protection software prevents the use of USB devices - test your system with a USB drive before class to ensure you can load the course data.)
- 350 Gigabytes of Free Space - Note that about 150 GB is required for downloaded evidence files. This data can be stored on an external drive
- Local Administrator Access is required. This is absolutely required. Don't let your IT team tell you otherwise. If your company will not permit this access for the duration of the course, then you should make arrangements to bring a different laptop.
- Wireless 802.11 Capability
MANDATORY FOR508 HOST OPERATING SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:
- Host Operating System: Latest version of Windows 10 or macOS 10.15.x
- Please note: It is necessary to fully update your host operating system prior to the class to ensure you have the right drivers and patches installed to utilize the latest USB 3.0 devices.
- Note: Apple systems using the M1 processor cannot perform the necessary virtualization at this time and cannot be used for this course.
PLEASE INSTALL THE FOLLOWING SOFTWARE PRIOR TO CLASS:
- Download and install VMware Workstation Pro 15.5.X+, VMware Player 15.5.X+ or Fusion 11.5+ on your system prior to class beginning. If you do not own a licensed copy of VMware Workstation or Fusion, you can download a free 30-day trial copy from VMware. VMware will send you a time-limited serial number if you register for the trial at their website.
- Download and install 7Zip (for Windows Hosts) or Keka (macOS).
Your course media will now be delivered via download. The media files for class can be large, some in the 40 - 50 GB range. You need to allow plenty of time for the download to complete. Internet connections and speed vary greatly and are dependent on many different factors. Therefore, it is not possible to give an estimate of the length of time it will take to download your materials. Please start your course media downloads as you get the link. You will need your course media immediately on the first day of class. Waiting until the night before the class starts to begin your download has a high probability of failure.
SANS has begun providing printed materials in PDF form. Additionally, certain classes are using an electronic workbook in addition to the PDFs. The number of classes using eWorkbooks will grow quickly. In this new environment, we have found that a second monitor and/or a tablet device can be useful by keeping the class materials visible while the instructor is presenting or while you are working on lab exercises.
If you have additional questions about the laptop specifications, please contact email@example.com.
"Many DFIR professionals have dismissed the cloud as 'someone else's computer' missing the wealth of new evidence sources and possibilities that now exist. From audit logs that attackers can't clear without full tenant compromise to the ability to turn on Netflow data with a single line of code/click and no additional hardware needed the cloud offers a world of new possibilities to those DFIR professionals who embrace what the cloud brings to them.
FOR509 was written to give you a headstart in understanding, analyzing and solving cloud based investigations. Not only do we cover the most popular cloud solutions on the market we also help the student to understand now just how to interpret the data but how they can take their detection and response capabilities to the next level. Cloud automation, flexible infrastructure on demand and entire processing clusters on standby mean you can make your enterprise ready for an event at any scale. We've dealt with some of the biggest breaches in some of the biggest networks and we'll show students how they can be ready to do the same in the cloud."
"Just as we got better at defending our on-premise environment, the shiny new object called the "cloud" has radically changed our battlefield. Corporations are moving their systems and data to the cloud at breakneck speed, leaving us as their defenders scrambling for new playbooks and know-how to keep them safe. Lacking direct access to the physical systems means that many traditional forensic methods no longer work. The good news is that we now have cloud specific tools and logs that empowers us to respond to incidents faster and better. FOR509 will examine these tools and techniques to take your skills to the cloud level."
"As organisations rush to find quicker and more flexible ways to build their IT infrastructure and online applications, they leave behind their on-premises infrastructure and the visibility their incident response and digital forensics teams have built over many years. On top of this, new Cloud features and services are being introduced at a rapid pace making it challenging for incident response professions to know what evidence they have available in the event of a cybersecurity incident.The FOR509 class will give both incident response and digital forensics professionals the knowledge and skills they need to know what evidence is available to them, how they can obtain and interpret evidence for the three commonly used IaaS Clouds and common SaaS Clouds. If you or your organisation work with Cloud infrastructure, then this class is a must to get an advantage over threat actors!"