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SANS NewsBites is a semiweekly high-level executive summary of the most important news articles that have been published on computer security during the last week. Each news item is very briefly summarized and includes a reference on the web for detailed information, if possible.

Spend five minutes per week to keep up with the high-level perspective of all the latest security news. New issues are delivered free every Tuesday and Friday.

Volume XXII - Issue #56

July 17, 2020

UK, Canada, and US Say Russian Hackers Targeting Vaccine Research; Hackers Hijacked High-Profile Twitter Accounts; US Legislators Adding Solarium Report Recommendations to Bill


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SANS NewsBites                July 17, 2020                Vol. 22, Num. 056

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TOP OF THE NEWS


  UK, Canada, and US Say Russian Hackers are Targeting COVID-19 Vaccine Research

  Hackers Hijacked High-Profile Twitter Accounts And Used Them in Bitcoin Scam

  US Legislators Adding Solarium Report Recommendations to Defense Spending Bill



REST OF THE NEWS


  Patch Tuesday: Cisco and Oracle

  Patch Tuesday Adobe

  Microsoft Patch Tuesday Addresses 120+ Vulnerabilities, Including Wormable Flaw (SIGRed)

  Apple Updates: iOS, macOS, and More

  Counterfeit Cisco Devices Caused Network Switch Failures

  IBM X-Force Found Iranian Threat Group Training Videos Online

  EU Court of Justice Invalidates Privacy Shield Data Sharing Agreement

  Identity Theft Resource Center: Data Breaches Decreasing

  Decommissioned Police Bodycams Purchased Online Contain Sensitive Data


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TOP OF THE NEWS   

 

--UK, Canada, and US Say Russian Hackers are Targeting COVID-19 Vaccine Research

(July 16, 2020)

In a joint advisory, government officials from the UK, Canada, and the US said that hackers with ties to Russia have been targeting organizations conducting research on COVID-19 vaccines. Suggestions for mitigating the risk of attack include keeping devices and networks up-to-date; implementing multi-factor authentication; and preventing and detecting lateral movement in networks.


Read more in:

NCSC: Advisory: APT29 targets COVID-19 vaccine development (introduction)

https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/advisory-apt29-targets-covid-19-vaccine-development

NCSC: Advisory: APT29 targets COVID-19 vaccine development (full advisory: PDF)

https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/files/Advisory-APT29-targets-COVID-19-vaccine-development-V1-1.pdf

Duo: Russian Attackers Target COVID-19 Vaccine Research

https://duo.com/decipher/russian-attackers-target-covid-19-vaccine-research

Vice: Russia Is Trying to Hack COVID-19 Vaccine Development

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/wxqzmy/russia-is-trying-to-hack-covid-19-vaccine-development

MeriTalk: U.S., UK, Canada Warn Against Russian-Led COVID R&D/Vaccine Attacks

https://www.meritalk.com/articles/u-s-uk-canada-warn-against-russian-led-covid-rd-vaccine-attacks/

The Register: FYI Russia is totally hacking the West's labs in search of COVID-19 vaccine files, say UK, US, Canada cyber-spies

https://www.theregister.com/2020/07/16/russia_coronavirus_hacking/

Cyberscoop: Russian government hackers targeting coronavirus vaccine research, UK, US and Canada warn

https://www.cyberscoop.com/coronavirus-vaccine-hacking-cozy-bear-apt29/


 

--Hackers Hijacked High-Profile Twitter Accounts And Used Them in Bitcoin Scam

(July 15 & 16, 2020)

Hackers took over dozens of high-profile Twitter accounts and used them to tweet that if people sent then bitcoin, they would send back twice as much. They received $120,000 worth of the cryptocurrency before the scam was detected and shut down. Twitter says is believes that the hackers targeted Twitter employees in a "coordinated social engineering attack" to take control of the accounts.


[Editor Comments]


[Neely] The hijacked accounts had "Verified" status, which indicates that the account takeover was from the use of Twitter administrator accounts. Multifactor authentication for administrator accounts cannot be optional. Further, limiting where they can login from should be considered.


[Pescatore] Overall, Twitter has kept its infrastructure pretty secure over the  years, but this event would be a good hook for raising the "What security actions are needed if our company will continue to rely on social media in general, and Twitter in particular, as a reliable place for business communications functions?" issue to CXOs and Boards of Directors. The flood of disinformation on Twitter and Facebook and others is so high that the risk vs. business value needs to be consciously examined.


[Murray] After an earlier incident like this one, Twitter made a strong authentication option available to its users. These users are the ones for which use of strong authentication is strongly indicated.  


[Honan] This is a great example of why it is so important to have restrictions and fail-safes set into your systems for high privilege accounts. Applying the CIS Critical Security Controls for Effective Cyber Defense and in particular enhanced authentication, verification, and alerting on unusual behaviours are just some of the controls that should be considered to protect these accounts from themselves.


Read more in:

Reuters: Focus falls on bitcoin trail in race to identify Twitter hackers

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-twitter-cyber-bitcoin-law-enforcement/focus-falls-on-bitcoin-trail-in-race-to-identify-twitter-hackers-idUSKCN24H2R4

Wired: A Twitter Hacking Spree Hits Elon Musk, Obama, Apple, and More

https://www.wired.com/story/twitter-hacking-musk-obama-apple-biden-kanye/

ZDNet: Twitter confirms internal tools used in bitcoin-promoting attack

https://www.zdnet.com/article/twitter-confirms-internal-tools-used-in-bitcoin-promoting-attack/

Ars Technica: Twitter lost control of its internal systems to Bitcoin-scamming hackers

https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2020/07/twitter-lost-control-of-its-internal-systems-to-bitcoin-scamming-hackers/


 

--US Legislators Adding Solarium Report Recommendations to Defense Spending Bill

(July 14, 2020)

Cybersecurity recommendations made in the Cyberspace Solarium Commission report, which was released earlier this year, are finding their way into markups of and proposed amendments to the FY 2021 US National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). This month, the Cyberspace Solarium Commission staff released a list of 54 legislative proposals drawn from the report.


Read more in:

FCW: NDAA process is now loaded with Solarium cyber amendments

https://fcw.com/articles/2020/07/14/johnson-ndaa-cyber-solarium-proposals.aspx

Solarium: Legislative Proposals

https://www.solarium.gov/report/legislative-proposals


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THE REST OF THE WEEK'S NEWS

 

--Patch Tuesday: Cisco and Oracle

(July 15 & 16, 2020)

Cisco has released fixes for more than 30 vulnerabilities in a variety of products, five of which are rated critical. The critical flaws include two remote code execution vulnerabilities, authentication bypass, privilege elevation, default credential. Oracle's Critical Patch Update for July 2020 includes nearly 450 fixes for vulnerabilities in multiple products.


[Editor Comments]


[Neely] This is a busy patch week. The trick is getting all these patches installed remotely, with systems which remain on-premise and user systems being remote. Making patch services available to off-site trusted devices without requiring a VPN can increase success and provide for automating patches for those remote systems. Remember that some on-premise systems may need human intervention to reboot after patching, which requires planning and communication.


[Ullrich] Pay attention to the backdoor ("Static Default Credential") Cisco removed from the VPN for its small business RV110W devices. This could be used to obtain unauthorized access to a network protected by the device.


[Murray]  Much of the responsibility for and cost of quality of our infrastructure has shifted from the developers to the users. This multiplies the cost and reduces the effectiveness in proportion to the popularity of the product.


Read more in:

The Register: Finally done with all those Patch Tuesday updates? Think again! Here's 33 Cisco bug fixes, with five criticals

https://www.theregister.com/2020/07/16/cisco_patches_july/

Dark Reading: 'Patch ASAP': Cisco Issues Updates for Routers, VPN Firewall

https://www.darkreading.com/vulnerabilities---threats/patch-asap-cisco-issues-updates-for-routers-vpn-firewall/d/d-id/1338364

Bleeping Computer: Cisco fixes critical pre-auth flaws allowing router takeover

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/cisco-fixes-critical-pre-auth-flaws-allowing-router-takeover/

Cisco: Cisco Security Advisories

https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/publicationListing.x

Oracle: Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory - July 2020

https://www.oracle.com/security-alerts/cpujul2020.html

 
 

--Patch Tuesday Adobe

(July 14, 2020)

On Tuesday, July 14, Adobe released fixes for a total of 13 vulnerabilities affecting five different products: Download Manager, ColdFusion, Genuine Service, Media Encoder and the Creative Cloud Desktop Application. Four of the vulnerabilities are rated critical; the other nine are rated important. The critical flaws are a Symlink vulnerability in Creative Cloud; two out-of-bounds write vulnerabilities in Media Encoder; and a command injection vulnerability in Download Manager.


Read more in:

SC Magazine: Patch Tuesday: Adobe eliminates four critical bugs

https://www.scmagazine.com/home/security-news/vulnerabilities/patch-tuesday-adobe-eliminates-four-critical-bugs/

Threatpost: Adobe Discloses Critical Code-Execution Bugs in July Update

https://threatpost.com/adobe-critical-code-execution-bugs-july/157420/

Bleeping Computer: Adobe fixes critical bugs in Creative Cloud, Media Encoder

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/adobe-fixes-critical-bugs-in-creative-cloud-media-encoder/

Adobe: Security Bulletins and Advisories

https://helpx.adobe.com/security.html


 

--Microsoft Patch Tuesday Addresses 120+ Vulnerabilities, Including Wormable Flaw (SIGRed)

(July 14 & 15, 2020)

On Tuesday, July 14, Microsoft released fixes for more than 120 vulnerabilities across its product line; 18 of the vulnerabilities are rated critical.  One of the critical flaws is a "wormable" remote code execution flaw which can spread from machine to machine with no human interaction. Check Point detected the flaw and reported it to Microsoft in May. SIGRed, as Check Point named the flaw, affects Windows DNS servers and can be exploited by sending a malicious request to a vulnerable Windows DNS server. The flaw has been present in Windows DNS Server for 17 years. It has been given a CVSS base score of 10.


[Editor Comments]


[Ullrich] Expect working exploits for CVE-2020-1350 ("SigRed" Microsoft DNS Server Vulnerability) soon, maybe today. So far, only a DoS exploit has been made public. Of course, this vulnerability caught the most attention out of all of the issues patched. Another interesting vulnerability was patched in Outlook. Sadly, this patch caused a lot of problems for Outlook users, and some had to remove it.


[Neely] The DNS flaw was highlighted in CISA Emergency Directive 20-03 (https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/current-activity/2020/07/16/cisa-releases-emergency-directive-critical-microsoft-vulnerability), which urges immediate patching. If you cannot patch immediately, apply the registry fix mitigation to Windows servers running DNS services immediately while completing your regression testing. Note, per Binding Operational Directive 19-0 (https://cyber.dhs.gov/bod/19-02/), Federal Agencies have 15 days to apply this patch.


[Pescatore] Another reminder that IT operations patching performance may have suffered during the transition to working from home. The rise in infection rate in areas of the US and the world may cause more degradation. Worth checking and pushing tighter levels of mitigation if IT ops has been unable to meet patching SLAs or norms.


Read more in:

KrebsOnSecurity: 'Wormable' Flaw Leads July Microsoft Patches

https://krebsonsecurity.com/2020/07/wormable-flaw-leads-july-microsoft-patches/

ZDNet: Microsoft July 2020 Patch Tuesday fixes 123 vulnerabilities

https://www.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-july-2020-patch-tuesday-fixes-123-vulnerabilities/

Threatpost: Microsoft Tackles 123 Fixes for July Patch Tuesday

https://threatpost.com/microsoft-tackles-123-fixes-july-patch-tuesday/157440/

Bleeping Computer: Microsoft July 2020 Patch Tuesday: 123 vulnerabilities, 18 Critical!

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/microsoft/microsoft-july-2020-patch-tuesday-123-vulnerabilities-18-critical/

Check Point: SIGRed - this is not just another vulnerability- Patch now to stop the next cyber pandemic

https://blog.checkpoint.com/2020/07/14/sigred-this-is-not-just-another-vulnerability-patch-now-to-stop-the-next-cyber-pandemic/

MSRC: CVE-2020-1350 | Windows DNS Server Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

https://portal.msrc.microsoft.com/en-US/security-guidance/advisory/CVE-2020-1350

Wired: Hack Brief: Microsoft Warns of a 17-Year-Old 'Wormable' Bug

https://www.wired.com/story/sigred-windows-dns-flas-wormable/

Duo: Wormable Flaw in Windows DNS Server Can Take Over IT Networks

https://duo.com/decipher/wormable-flaw-in-windows-dns-server-can-take-over-it-networks

Ars Technica: Microsoft urges patching severe-impact, wormable server vulnerability

https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2020/07/microsoft-urges-patching-severe-impact-wormable-server-vulnerability/

Dark Reading: Microsoft Patches Wormable RCE Flaw in Windows DNS Servers

https://www.darkreading.com/vulnerabilities---threats/microsoft-patches-wormable-rce-flaw-in-windows-dns-servers/d/d-id/1338351

Threatpost: Critical DNS Bug Opens Windows Servers to Infrastructure Hijacking

https://threatpost.com/critical-dns-bug-windows-servers-infrastructure-takeover/157427/

Bleeping Computer: Microsoft patches critical wormable SigRed bug in Windows DNS Server

https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/microsoft-patches-critical-wormable-sigred-bug-in-windows-dns-server/

 

 --Apple Updates: iOS, macOS, and More

(July 15 & 16, 2020)

On Wednesday, July 15, Apple released updates for numerous products, including iOS (13.6), iPadOS (13.6), macOS (10.15.6), Safari (13.1.2), tvOS (13.4.8), and watchOS (6.2.8).


[Editor Comments]


[Neely] The patches include updates for iOS 12.4.8 and watchOS 5.3.8 which contain no CVE entries. The updates to Kernel, Audio, WebKit and Safari occur across the updates with CVE entries, and as such need to be rolled out with your other patch Tuesday updates.


Read more in:

Ars Technica: Apple releases iOS and iPadOS 13.6, macOS 10.15.6, and watchOS 6.2.8

https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2020/07/apple-updates-ios-to-13-6-with-digital-car-keys-local-news-and-more/

The Register: This week of never-ending security updates continue. Now Apple emits dozens of fixes for iOS, macOS, etc

https://www.theregister.com/2020/07/16/apple_july_updates/

Support.apple: Apple security updates

https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201222

 
 

--Counterfeit Cisco Devices Caused Network Switch Failures

(July 16, 2020)

An F-Secure investigation into network switch failures at an unnamed IT company found that the problem was caused by counterfeit Cisco devices. The failure occurred after a software upgrade in fall 2019.


[Editor Comments]


[Ullrich] Be careful where you buy equipment. This isn't a new issue. Counterfeit equipment has also been responsible for datacenter fires in the past due to substandard power supplies. Here is an example from 2008: https://www.zdnet.com/article/cisco-partners-sell-fake-routers-to-us-military/: Cisco partners sell fake routers to US military.


[Pescatore] Back in 2008, the FBI operation "Cisco Raider" found over 3,500 counterfeit Cisco devices sold to US government, industry and power plants. The procurement side of supply chain security obviously failed again. Good item to prompt a review of internal procurement controls to prevent this and important to blacklist any integrator or channel supplier that is found to have sold counterfeit gear.


[Neely] These counterfeit devices did not include any discoverable backdoors, indicating these were financially motivated replacements that were very difficult to differentiate from genuine products. The F-Secure analysis provides insight into the steps taken to ensure the fake devices would run the genuine Cisco firmware, including how integrity checks were bypassed. Make sure that your suppliers have adequate controls to assure genuine products are delivered as well as understanding the response plan if a counterfeit device is discovered.


[Murray] The first article is about forensics, the second about "counterfeiting" of Cisco devices. It ends with four recommendations the most important of which is "Source all your devices from authorized resellers," to which I would add "expect to pay market prices."


Read more in:

Labs.F-Secure: The Fake Cisco

https://labs.f-secure.com/publications/the-fake-cisco/

SC Magazine: Fake Cisco switches provoked network failures

https://www.scmagazine.com/home/security-news/fake-cisco-switches-provoked-network-failures/


 

--IBM X-Force Found Iranian Threat Group Training Videos Online

(July 16, 2020)

IBM's X-Force Incident Response Intelligence Services (IRIS) discovered a server that contained video files of an Iranian threat group's operations. The server contained 40 gigabytes of data. The videos include evidence of stealing data from a US Navy officer and a Greek naval officer.


Read more in:

Security Intelligence: New Research Exposes Iranian Threat Group Operations

https://securityintelligence.com/posts/new-research-exposes-iranian-threat-group-operations/

Wired: Iranian Spies Accidentally Leaked Videos of Themselves Hacking

https://www.wired.com/story/iran-apt35-hacking-video/

ZDNet: Iranian cyberspies leave training videos exposed online

https://www.zdnet.com/article/iranian-cyberspies-leave-training-videos-exposed-online/

Cyberscoop: Iran-linked hackers steal sensitive data from U.S. Navy member, researchers say

https://www.cyberscoop.com/iran-hackers-us-navy-ibm/

   

 --EU Court of Justice Invalidates Privacy Shield Data Sharing Agreement

(July 16, 2020)

The European Union Court of Justice has ruled that Privacy Shield, the EU/US data sharing agreement, is invalid. The court said that the agreement did not adequately protect EU residents' data when it is sent to the US, and as such, violates EU privacy law. Privacy Shield was created in 2016, after the Safe Harbor agreement was deemed inadequate and the establishment of Standard Contractual Clauses (SCC), which are still valid.


[Editor Comments]


[Pescatore] This is a complex issue; make sure your legal counsel is aware of the change. The most immediate pressure will be on companies defined as "Electronic Communication Service Providers" under 50 US 1881. That will be pressure for additional safeguards beyond what might have been defined in existing Standard Contractual Clauses and increased demand for EU citizen data only being stored in EU-located data centers that are under EU regulations and not subject to US mandated surveillance.


[Honan] At the core of this decision was the lack of assurances that could be demonstrated to the ECJ that personal data belonging to those in the EU would not be subjected to US surveillance laws when transferred to the US. This will have implications for many cloud based companies and for US companies operating in the EU who need to transfer personal data back to the US. While the court has deemed the Standard Contractual Clauses as an alternative to relying on Privacy Shield, this could change and more stringent legal agreements put in place. Of note is the statement from the office of the Irish Data Protection Commission (who brought the case to the ECJ) which says "This is an issue that will require further and careful examination, not least because assessments will need to be made on a case by case basis". So watch this space.


Read more in:

Curia: The Court of Justice invalidates Decision 2016/1250 on the adequacy of the protection provided by the EU-US Data Protection Shield (PDF)

https://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2020-07/cp200091en.pdf

Wired: The European Court of Justice has ruled that Privacy Shield is invalid

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/privacy-shield-ruling

Washington Post: Top E.U. court ruling throws transatlantic digital commerce into disarray over privacy concerns

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/top-eu-court-ruling-throws-transatlantic-digital-commerce-into-disarray-over-privacy-concerns/2020/07/16/d2c0fe06-c736-11ea-a825-8722004e4150_story.html

ZDNet: European court strikes down EU-US Privacy Shield user data exchange agreement as invalid

https://www.zdnet.com/article/european-court-strikes-down-eu-us-privacy-shield-citizen-data-transfer-agreement/

The Register: Privacy Shield binned after EU court rules transatlantic data protection arrangements 'inadequate'

https://www.theregister.com/2020/07/16/privacy_shield_struck_down/

Infosecurity Magazine: EU Court of Justice Deems Privacy Shield Unlawful

https://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/news/eu-court-of-justice-deems-privacy/

 
 

 --Identity Theft Resource Center: Data Breaches Decreasing

(July 16, 2020)

The Identity Theft Resource Center says that data breaches have decreased during the first quarter of 2020. The organization compiled data from publicly reported breaches in the US during the first three months of 2020.


[Editor Comments]


[Pescatore] I've used the ITRC data for years - one important caveat is that most ransomware attacks have not been considered "breaches" in the past and are often not reported formally or at all. That is starting to change, but many state and local organizations that tightened up controls around sensitive databases to prevent breaches were impacted by ransomware. The main point is to make sure you have basic security hygiene in place before you address attack specific controls.


Read more in:

ID Theft Center: Identity Theft Resource Center Sees a Data Breach Decrease in First Quarter of 2020

https://www.idtheftcenter.org/identity-theft-resource-center-sees-a-data-breach-decrease-in-first-quarter-of-2020/

 

--Decommissioned Police Bodycams Purchased Online Contain Sensitive Data

(July 8 & 13, 2020)

A used bodycam purchased on eBay yielded unencrypted video of US military police officers at work. Other decommissioned bodycams purchased online have turned up similar data.


[Editor Comments]


[Neely] Just about every piece of electronic gear contains persistent storage. Decommissioning, repair, warranty returns, and upgrade activities need to include processes for analyzing what is stored and enact device wipe or media removal where appropriate. NIST SP 800-88 has a lot of information and clearing processes, including validation, which can be leveraged. In some cases, where a wipe cannot be assured, working with a recycler that can shred or otherwise destroy the device can make sure that's done properly and avoid the consequences of inadvertent data loss.


Read more in:

Vice: Hackers Are Finding Footage on Police Body Cams They Bought on eBay

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/8895ek/hackers-are-finding-footage-on-police-body-cams-they-bought-on-ebay

GCN: Security researcher finds unencrypted video on bodycam from Fort Huachuca

https://gcn.com/articles/2020/07/13/unencrypted-video-used-body-cam.aspx

 

****************************************************************************

 

INTERNET STORM CENTER TECH CORNER


MSFT Patch Tuesday

https://isc.sans.edu/forums/diary/Microsoft+July+2020+Patch+Tuesday+Patch+Now/26350/

 

MSFT DNS Server Vulnerability

https://isc.sans.edu/forums/diary/PATCH+NOW+SIGRed+CVE20201350+Microsoft+DNS+Server+Vulnerability/26356/

https://www.sans.org/webcasts/about-windows-dns-vulnerability-cve-2020-1350-116120

 

SIGRed PoC

https://github.com/maxpl0it/CVE-2020-1350-DoS

 

Outlook Crashes After Patch Tuesday Updates

https://www.reddit.com/r/sysadmin/comments/hrq0mn/outlook_immediately_crashing_on_open_after/fy5nnx2/

 

Adobe Patches

https://helpx.adobe.com/security.html

 

Oracle Quarterly Critical Patch Update

https://www.oracle.com/security-alerts/cpujul2020.html

 

Cisco Backdoors

https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/publicationListing.x?product=Cisco&sort=-day_sir&limit=100#~Vulnerabilities

 

Twitter Compromise

https://twitter.com/TwitterSupport/status/1283591846464233474

 

Apple Updates

https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201222

 

SAP PoC Exploit Code Published

https://github.com/chipik/SAP_RECON

https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-195a

 

SANS.edu Student: Aaron Elyard: KITT

https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/OpenSource/improving-analyst-efficiency-office365-business-email-compromise-investigation-scenarios-implementation-open-source-tools-39655

KITT: https://github.com/intrepidtechie/KITT-O365-Tool

 

******************************************************************************


The Editorial Board of SANS NewsBites

 

John Pescatore was Vice President at Gartner Inc. for fourteen years. He became a director of the SANS Institute in 2013. He has worked in computer and network security since 1978 including time at the NSA and the U.S. Secret Service.


Shawn Henry is president of CrowdStrike Services. He retired as FBI Executive Assistant Director responsible for all criminal and cyber programs and investigations worldwide, as well as international operations and the FBI's critical incident response.


Suzanne Vautrinot was Commander of the 24th Air Force (AF Cyber) and now sits on the board of directors of Wells Fargo and several other major organizations.


Ed Skoudis is co-founder of CounterHack, the nation's top producer of cyber ranges, simulations, and competitive challenges, now used from high schools to the Air Force. He is also author and lead instructor of the SANS Hacker Exploits and Incident Handling course, and Penetration Testing course.


Mark Weatherford is Global Information Security Strategist for Booking Holdings and the former Deputy Under Secretary of Cybersecurity at the US Department of Homeland Security.


Stephen Northcutt teaches advanced courses in cyber security management; he founded the GIAC certification and was the founding President of STI, the premier skills-based cyber security graduate school, www.sans.edu.


Dr. Johannes Ullrich is Chief Technology Officer of the Internet Storm Center and Dean of the Faculty of the graduate school at the SANS Technology Institute.


William Hugh Murray is an executive consultant and trainer in Information Assurance and Associate Professor at the Naval Postgraduate School.


Lee Neely is a Senior Cyber Analyst at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SANS Analyst and Mentor. He has worked in computer security since 1989.


Rob Lee is the SANS Institute's top forensics instructor and director of the digital forensics and incident response research and education program at SANS (computer-forensics.sans.org).


Tom Liston is member of the Cyber Network Defense team at UAE-based Dark Matter. He is a Handler for the SANS Institute's Internet Storm Center and co-author of the book Counter Hack Reloaded.


Jake Williams is a SANS course author and the founder of Rendition Infosec, with experience securing DoD, healthcare, and ICS environments.


Dr. Eric Cole is an instructor, author and fellow with The SANS Institute. He has written five books, including Insider Threat and he is a founder with Secure Anchor Consulting.


David Hoelzer is the director of research & principal examiner for Enclave Forensics and a senior fellow with the SANS Technology Institute.


Gal Shpantzer is a trusted advisor to CSOs of large corporations, technology startups, Ivy League universities and non-profits specializing in critical infrastructure protection. Gal created the Security Outliers project in 2009, focusing on the role of culture in risk management outcomes and contributes to the Infosec Burnout project.


Alan Paller is director of research at the SANS Institute.


Brian Honan is an independent security consultant based in Dublin, Ireland.


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