SANS FOR500 @ GM Security Technologies - In-Person

GM Security Technologies HQ (GM Sectec) GM Group Plaza 1590 Ponce de Leon Ave Suite 110 – Lobby – Executive Briefing Centre Rio Piedras, PR 00926 Mon, Jan 24 - Sat, Jan 29, 2022

Welcome to FOR500: Windows Forensic Analysis

Instructor: TBD | 36 CPEs
Associated Certification:  
GIAC Certified Forensic Examiner (GCFE)

FOR500 builds in-depth and comprehensive digital forensics knowledge of Microsoft Windows operating systems by analyzing and authenticating forensic data as well as track detailed user activity and organize findings. It teaches students to apply digital forensic methodologies to a variety of case types and situations, allowing them to apply in the real world the right methodology to achieve the best outcome.

What You Will Learn

Master Windows Forensics - "You Can't Protect the Unknown."

All organizations must prepare for cybercrime occurring on computer systems and within corporate networks. Demand has never been greater for analysts who can investigate crimes such as fraud, insider threats, industrial espionage, employee misuse, and computer intrusions. Government agencies increasingly require trained media exploitation specialists to recover vital intelligence from Windows systems, as well as law enforcement investigators to get to the root of a crime. To help solve these cases, SANS is training a new cadre of the world's best digital forensic professionals, incident responders, and media exploitation experts capable of piecing together what happened on computer systems second by second.

FOR500: Windows Forensic Analysis focuses on building in-depth digital forensics knowledge of Microsoft Windows operating systems. You can't protect what you don't know about, and understanding forensic capabilities and available artifacts is a core component of information security. You will learn how to recover, analyze, and authenticate forensic data on Windows systems, track individual user activity on your network, and organize findings for use in incident response, internal investigations, intellectual property theft inquiries, and civil or criminal litigation. You'll be able to validate security tools, enhance vulnerability assessments, identify insider threats, track hackers, and improve security policies. Whether you know it or not, Windows is silently recording an unbelievable amount of data about you and your users. FOR500 teaches you how to mine this mountain of data and use it to your advantage.

Proper analysis requires real data for students to examine. This continually updated course trains digital forensic analysts through a series of new hands-on laboratory exercises that incorporate evidence found on the latest technologies, including Microsoft Windows 7, Windows 8/8.1, Windows 10, Office and Microsoft 365, Google Workspace (G Suite), Cloud Storage, SharePoint, Exchange, and Outlook. Students will leave the course armed with the latest tools and techniques and prepared to investigate even the most complicated systems they might encounter. Nothing is left out - attendees learn to analyze everything from legacy Windows 7 systems to just-discovered Windows 10 artifacts.

FOR500: Windows Forensic Analysis will teach you to:

  • Conduct in-depth forensic analysis of Windows operating systems and media exploitation on Windows 7, Windows 8/8.1, Windows 10, and Windows Server products.
  • Identify artifact and evidence locations to answer crucial questions, including application execution, file access, data theft, external device usage, cloud services, device geolocation, file download, anti-forensics, and detailed system and user activity.
  • Become tool-agnostic by focusing your capabilities on analysis instead of how to use a particular tool.
  • Extract critical answers and build an in-house forensic capability via a variety of free, open-source, and commercial tools provided within the SANS Windows SIFT Workstation.

FOR500 starts with an intellectual property theft and corporate espionage case that took over six months to create. You work in the real world, so your training should include real-world practice data. Our instructor course development team used incidents from their own investigations and experiences to create an incredibly rich and detailed scenario designed to immerse students in an actual investigation. The case demonstrates the latest artifacts and technologies an investigator might encounter while analyzing Windows systems. The detailed workbook shows the tools and techniques that each investigator should employ step by step to solve a forensic case. The tools can be used long after the end of class.

Please note that this is an analysis-focused course; FOR500 does not cover the basics of evidentiary handling, the "chain of custody," or introductory drive acquisition. The course authors update FOR500 aggressively to stay current with the latest artifacts and techniques discovered. This course is perfect for you if you are interested in in-depth and current Microsoft Windows Operating System forensics and analysis for any incident that occurs. If you have not updated your Windows forensic analysis skills in the past three years or more, this course is essential.

You Will Be Able To

  • Perform proper Windows forensic analysis by applying key techniques focusing on Windows 7, Windows 8/8.1, and Windows10
  • Use state-of-the-art forensic tools and analysis methods to detail nearly every action a suspect accomplished on a Windows system, including who placed an artifact on the system and how, program execution, file/folder opening, geolocation, browser history, profile USB device usage, cloud storage usage, and more
  • Uncover the exact time that a specific user last executed a program through Registry and Windows artifact analysis, and understand how this information can be used to prove intent in cases such as intellectual property theft, hacker-breached systems, and traditional crimes
  • Determine the number of times files have been opened by a suspect through browser forensics, shortcut file analysis (LNK), email analysis, and Windows Registry parsing
  • Audit cloud storage usage, including detailed user activity, identifying deleted files and even documenting files available only in the cloud
  • Identify keywords searched by a specific user on a Windows system to pinpoint the data and information that the suspect was interested in finding, and accomplish detailed damage assessments
  • Use Windows Shellbag analysis tools to articulate every folder and directory a user or attacker interacted with while accessing local, removable, and network drives
  • Determine each time a unique and specific USB device was attached to the Windows system, the files and folders accessed on it, and what user plugged it in by parsing Windows artifacts such as Registry hives and Event Log files
  • Learn Event Log analysis techniques and use them to determine when and how users logged into a Windows system, whether via a remote session, at the keyboard, or simply by unlocking a screensaver
  • Determine where a crime was committed using Registry data and pinpoint the geolocation of a system by examining connected networks and wireless access points
  • Use browser forensic tools to perform detailed web browser analysis, parse raw SQLite and ESE databases, and leverage session recovery artifacts to identify web activity, even if privacy cleaners and in-private browsing software are used
  • Specifically determine how individuals used a system, who they communicated with, and files that were downloaded, modified, and deleted

Windows Forensics Course Topics:

  • Windows Operating Systems Focus (Windows 7, Windows 8/8.1, Windows 10, Server 2008/2012/2016/2019)
  • Windows File Systems (NTFS, FAT, exFAT)
  • Advanced Evidence Acquisition Tools and Techniques
  • Registry Forensics
  • Shell Item Forensics
    • Shortcut Files (LNK) - Evidence of File Opening
    • Shellbags - Evidence of Folder Opening
    • JumpLists - Evidence of File Opening and Program Execution
  • Windows Artifact Analysis
    • Browser and Webmail Analysis
    • Microsoft Office Document Analysis
    • System Resource Usage Database
    • Windows 10 Timeline Database
    • Windows Recycle Bin Analysis
    • File and Picture Metadata Tracking and Examination
    • Myriad Application Execution Artifacts, including Several New to Windows 10
  • Cloud Storage File and Metadata Examinations
    • OneDrive and OneDrive for Business, Dropbox, Google Drive, Google Workspace, and Box
  • Email Forensics (Host, Server, Web), including Microsoft 365 and G Suite
  • Microsoft Unified Audit Logging
  • Event Log Analysis
  • Chrome, Edge, Internet Explorer, and Firefox Browser Forensics
  • Microsoft 365 SharePoint, OneDrive, Teams, and Email
  • Google Workspace (G Suite) Applications and Logging
  • Deleted Registry Key and File Recovery
  • Recovering Missing Data from Registry and ESE Database .log Files
  • String Searching and File Carving
  • Examination of Cases Involving Windows 7 through Windows 10
  • Media Analysis and Exploitation to:
    • Track User Communications Using a Windows Device (Email, Chat, Webmail)
    • Identify If and How a Suspect Downloaded Specific Files to or from a Device
    • Determine the Exact Time and Number of Times a Suspect Executed a Program
    • Show When Any File Was First and Last Opened by a Suspect
    • Determine If a Suspect Had Knowledge of a Specific File
    • Show the Exact Physical Location of the System
    • Track and Analyze Removable Media and USB Mass Storage Class Devices
    • Show How the Suspect Logged on to the Machine via the Console, RDP, or Network
    • Recover and Examine Browser Artifacts, including Those from Private Browsing Mode
    • Discover the Use of Anti-Forensics, including File Wiping, Time Manipulation, and Application Removal
  • The Course Is Fully Updated to Include the Latest Windows 7, 8, 8.1, 10, and Server 2008/2012/2016/2019 Artifacts, Tools, and Techniques

What You Will Receive

Course Syllabus

FOR500.1: Digital Forensics and Advanced Data Triage


The Windows Forensic Analysis course starts with an examination of digital forensics in today's interconnected environments and discusses challenges associated with mobile devices, tablets, cloud storage, and modern Windows operating systems. Hard drive and digital media sizes are increasingly difficult and time-consuming to handle appropriately in digital cases. Being able to acquire data in an efficient and forensically sound manner is crucial to every investigator today. In this course section, we review the core techniques while introducing new triage-based acquisition and extraction capabilities that will increase the speed and efficiency of the acquisition process. We demonstrate how to acquire memory, the NTFS MFT, Windows logs, Registry, and critical files in minutes instead of the hours or days currently spent on acquisition.

We also begin processing our collected evidence using stream-based and file-carving-based extraction capabilities employing both commercial and open-source tools and techniques. Students come away with the knowledge necessary to target the specific data needed to rapidly answer fundamental questions in their cases.

  • Install the Windows SIFT Workstation and get oriented with its capabilities
  • Undertake advanced triage-based acquisition and imaging resulting in rapid acquisition
  • Mount acquired disk images and evidence
  • Carve important files from free space
  • Recover critical user data from the pagefile, hibernation file, memory images, and unallocated space
  • Recover chat sessions, web-based email, social networking, and private browsing artifacts
  • Windows Operating System Components
    • Key Differences in Modern Windows Operating Systems
  • Core Forensic Principles
    • Analysis Focus
    • Determining Your Scope
    • Creating and Investigative Plan
  • Live Response and Triage-Based Acquisition Techniques
    • RAM Acquisition and Following the Order of Volatility
    • Triage-Based Forensics and Fast Forensic Acquisition
    • Encryption Detection
    • Registry and Locked File Extraction
    • Leveraging the Volume Shadow Service
    • KAPE Triage Collection
  • Windows Image Mounting and Examination
  • NTFS File System Overview
  • Document and File Metadata
  • File and Stream Carving
    • Principles of Data Carving
    • Recovering File System Metadata
    • File and Stream Carving Tools
    • Custom Carving Signatures
  • Memory, Pagefile, and Unallocated Space Analysis
    • Artifact Recovery and Examination
    • Chat Application Analysis
    • Internet Explorer, Edge, Firefox, Chrome, and InPrivate Browser Recovery
    • Email and Webmail, including Yahoo, Outlook.com, and Gmail

FOR500.2: Registry Analysis, Application Execution, and Cloud Storage Forensics


Our journey continues with the Windows Registry, where the digital forensic investigator will learn how to discover critical user and system information pertinent to almost any investigation. You'll learn how to navigate and analyze the Registry to obtain user profile and system data. During this course section, we will demonstrate investigative methods to prove that a specific user performed keyword searches, executed specific programs, opened and saved files, perused folders, and used removable devices.

Data is moving rapidly to the cloud, constituting a significant challenge and risk to the modern enterprise. Cloud storage applications are nearly ubiquitous on both consumer and business systems, causing interesting security and forensic challenges. In a world where some of the most important data is only present on third-party systems, how do we effectively accomplish our investigations? In this section we will dissect OneDrive and OneDrive for Business, Google Drive, Google Workspace (G Suite), Dropbox, and Box applications, deriving artifacts present in application logs and left behind on the endpoint. We'll demonstrate how to discover detailed user activity, the history of deleted files, and content in the cloud. Solutions to the very real challenges of forensic acquisition and proper logging are all discussed. Understanding what can be gained through analysis of these popular applications will make investigations of less common cloud storage solutions easier.

Throughout this course section, students will use their skills in a real hands-on case, exploring and analyzing a rich set of evidence.

  • Profile a computer system using evidence found in the Windows Registry
  • Conduct a detailed profile of user activity using Registry evidence
  • Examine which applications a user executed by examining Registry-based UserAssist, Prefetch, Background Activity Monitor data, and others
  • Determine which files and folders a user opened and interacted with via multiple Registry keys tracking user interactions
  • Examine recently opened Microsoft 365 and SharePoint files and determine first and last open times
  • Identify critical folders accessed by a user via the Common Dialog and Open/Save keys in the Registry
  • Perform cloud storage forensics, recovering information on local files, cloud-only files, and deleted items available in logs, application metadata databases, and host-based artifacts.
  • Registry Forensics In-Depth
  • Registry Core
    • Hives, Keys, and Values
    • Registry Last Write Time
    • MRU Lists
    • Deleted Registry Key Recovery
    • Identify Dirty Registry Hives and Recover Missing Data
    • Rapidly Search and Timeline Multiple Hives
  • Profile Users and Groups
    • Discover Usernames and Relevant Security Identifiers
    • Last Login
    • Last Failed Login
    • Login Count
    • Password Policy
  • Core System Information
    • Identify the Current Control Set
    • System Name and Version
    • Document the System Timezone
    • Wireless, Wired, VPN, and Broadband Network Auditing
    • Perform Device Geolocation via Network Profiling
    • Identify System Updates and Last Shutdown Time
    • Registry-Based Malware Persistence Mechanisms
  • User Forensic Data
    • Evidence of File Downloads
    • Office and Microsoft 365 File History Analysis
    • Windows 7, Windows 8/8.1, Windows 10 Search History
    • Typed Paths and Directories
    • Recent Documents (RecentDocs)
    • Open Save/Run Dialog Boxes Evidence
    • Application Execution History via UserAssist, Prefetch, Windows 10 Timeline, System Resource Usage Monitor (SRUM), and BAM/DAM
  • Cloud Storage Forensics
    • Microsoft OneDrive
    • OneDrive Files on Demand
    • Microsoft OneDrive for Business
    • OneDrive Unified Audit Logs
    • Google Drive
    • Google Workspace (G Suite) File Stream
    • Google Workspace (G Suite) Logging
    • Dropbox
    • Dropbox Decryption
    • Dropbox Logging
    • Box Drive
    • Box Backup and Sync
    • Synchronization and Timestamps
    • Forensic Acquisition Challenges
    • User Activity Enumeration

FOR500.3: Shell Items and Removable Device Profiling


Being able to show the first and last time a file or folder was opened is a critical analysis skill. Shell item analysis, including shortcut (LNK), Jumplist, and Shellbag databases, allows investigators to quickly pinpoint the times of file and folder usage per user. The knowledge obtained by examining shell items is crucial to perform damage assessments, track user activity in intellectual property theft cases, and track hackers.

Removable storage device investigations are an essential part of performing digital forensics. In this course section, students will learn how to perform in-depth USB device examinations on all modern Windows versions. You'll learn how to determine when a storage device was first and last plugged in, its vendor/make/model, and even the unique serial number of the device used.

  • Understand the difference between mass storage class (MSC), picture transfer protocol (PTP), and media transfer protocol (MTP) devices
  • Track USB devices and BYOD devices connected to the system using the Registry, event logs, and file system artifacts.
  • Determine first and last connected times of USB devices
  • Determine last removal time of USB devices
  • Explore the new removable device auditing features introduced in Windows 8 and Windows 10
  • Use shortcut (LNK) file analysis to determine first/last times a file was opened, and track files and folders present on removable media and across network shares
  • Use Shellbag Registry Key Analysis to audit accessed folders
  • Use Jumplist examination to determine when files were accessed by specific programs.
  • Shell Item Forensics
    • Shortcut Files (.lnk) - Evidence of File Opening
    • Windows 7-10 Jumplists - Evidence of File Opening and Program Execution
    • Shellbag Analysis - Evidence of Folder Access
  • USB and BYOD Forensic Examinations
    • Vendor/Make/Version
    • Unique Serial Number
    • Last Drive Letter
    • MountPoints2  Last Drive Mapping Per User (Including Mapped Shares)
    • Volume Name and Serial Number
    • Username that Used the USB Device
    • Time of First USB Device Connection
    • Time of Last USB Device Connection
    • Time of Last USB Device Removal
    • Auditing BYOD Devices at Scale

FOR500.4: Email Analysis, Windows Timeline, SRUM, and Event Logs


Depending on the type of investigation and authorization, a wealth of evidence can be unearthed through the analysis of email files. Recovered email can bring excellent corroborating information to an investigation, and its informality often provides very incriminating evidence. It is common for users to have an email that exists locally on their workstation, on their company email server, in a private cloud, and in multiple webmail accounts.

The exciting Windows 10 Timeline database shows great promise in recording detailed user activity, including additional application execution artifacts, mapping file usage to specific programs and users, and additional device identification via synchronized artifacts. Similarly, the System Resource Usage Monitor (SRUM), one of our most exciting digital artifacts, can help determine many important user actions, including network usage per application and VPN and wireless network usage. Imagine the ability to audit network usage by cloud storage and backdoors even after execution of counter-forensic programs!

Finally, Windows event log analysis has solved more cases than possibly any other type of analysis. Windows 10 now includes over 300 logs, and understanding the locations and content of the available log files is crucial to the success of any investigator. Many researchers overlook these records because they do not have adequate knowledge or tools to get the job done efficiently. This section arms investigators with the core knowledge and capability to maintain and build upon this crucial skill for many years to come.

  • Employ best-of-breed forensic tools to search for relevant email and file attachments in large data sets
  • Analyze message headers and gauge email authenticity using SPF and DKIM
  • Understand how Extended MAPI Headers can be used in an investigation
  • Effectively collect evidence from Exchange, Microsoft 365, and Google Workspace (G Suite)
  • Learn the latest on Unified Audit Logs in Microsoft 365
  • Search for webmail and mobile email remnants
  • Use forensic software to recover deleted objects from email archives
  • Gain experience with a commercial email forensics and e-discovery suite
  • Extract and review document metadata present in email archives
  • Understand the tools and logs necessary to respond to business email compromise events
  • Analyze the various versions of the Windows Recycle Bin
  • Use the System Resource Usage Monitor (SRUM) to answer questions with data never before available in Windows forensics
  • Track cloud storage usage hour by hour on a target system
  • Merge event logs and perform advanced filtering to easily get through millions of events
  • Profile account usage and determine logon session length
  • Audit file and folder access
  • Identify evidence of time manipulation on a system
  • Supplement registry analysis with BYOD device auditing, including new Windows 10 events
  • Analyze historical records of wireless network associations and geolocate a device
  • Email Forensics
    • Evidence of User Communication
    • How Email Works
    • Email Header Examination
    • Email Authenticity
    • Determining a Sender's Geographic Location
    • Extended MAPI Headers
    • Host-Based Email Forensics
    • Exchange Recoverable Items
    • Exchange Evidence Acquisition and Mail Export
    • Exchange Compliance Search and eDiscovery
    • Unified Audit Logs in Office 365
    • Google Workspace (G Suite) Logging
    • Recovering Data from the Google Workspace (G Suite)
    • Web and Cloud-Based Email
    • Webmail Acquisition
    • Email Searching and Examination
    • Mobile Email Remnants
    • Business Email Compromise
  • Forensicating Additional Windows OS Artifacts
    • Windows Search Index Forensics
    • Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) Database Recovery and Repair
    • Thumbs.db and Thumbcache Files
    • Windows Recycle Bin Analysis (XP, Windows 7-10)
    • Windows 10 Timeline Activities Database
    • System Resource Usage Monitor (SRUM)
      • Connected Networks, Duration, and Bandwidth Usage
      • Applications Run and Bytes Sent/Received Per Application
      • Application Push Notifications
      • Energy Usage
  • Windows Event Log Analysis
    • Event Logs that Matter to a Digital Forensic Investigator
    • EVTX and EVT Log Files
      • Track Account Usage, including RDP, Brute Force Password Attacks, and Rogue Local Account Usage
      • Audit and Analyze File and Folder Access
      • Prove System Time Manipulation
      • Track BYOD and External Devices
      • Microsoft Office Alert Logging
      • Geo-locate a Device via Event Logs

FOR500.5: Web Browser Forensics


With the increasing use of the web and the shift toward web-based applications and cloud computing, browser forensic analysis is a critical skill. During this section, students will comprehensively explore web browser evidence created during the use of Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Firefox, and Google Chrome. The hands-on skills taught here, such as SQLite and ESE database parsing, allow investigators to extend these methods to nearly any browser they encounter. Students will learn how to examine every significant artifact stored by the browser, including cookies, visit and download history, Internet cache files, browser extensions, and form data. We will show you how to find these records and identify the common mistakes investigators make when interpreting browser artifacts. You will also learn how to analyze some of the more obscure (and powerful) browser artifacts, such as session restore, HTML5 web storage, zoom levels, predictive site prefetching, and private browsing remnants. Finally, we'll explore browser synchronization, providing investigative artifacts derived from other devices in use by the subject of the investigation.

Throughout the section, students will use their skills in real hands-on cases, exploring evidence created by Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Internet Explorer, and Tor correlated with other Windows operating system artifacts.

  • Learn to manually parse SQLite databases from Firefox and Chrome
  • Explore the similarities and differences between Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge
  • Track a suspect's activity in browser history and cache files and identify local file access
  • Analyze artifacts found within the Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) database format
  • Examine which files a suspect downloaded
  • Determine URLs that suspects typed, clicked on, bookmarked, or were merely re-directed to while web browsing
  • Parse automatic crash recovery files to reconstruct multiple previous browser sessions
  • Identify anti-forensics activity and re-construct private browsing sessions
  • Investigate browser auto-complete and form data, bringing the investigation closer to a hands-on-keyboard
  • Learn how each browser synchronizes data with other devices and how to leverage synchronized data to audit activity occurring on previously unknown user devices like mobile phones, tablets, and other workstations.
  • Browser Forensics
    • History
    • Cache
    • Searches
    • Downloads
    • Understanding Browser Timestamps
    • Chrome
      • Chrome File Locations
      • Correlating URLs and Visits Tables for Historical Context
      • History and Page Transition Types
      • Chrome Preferences File
      • Web Data, Shortcuts, and Network Action Predictor Databases
      • Chrome Timestamps
      • Cache Examinations
      • Download History
      • Web Storage, IndexDB, and the HTML5 File System
      • Chrome Session Recovery
      • Chrome Profiles Feature
      • Identifying Cross-Device Chrome Synchronization
    • Edge
      • Chromium Edge vs. Google Chrome
      • History, Cache, Cookies, Download History, and Session Recovery
      • Microsoft Edge Collections
      • Edge Internet Explorer Mode
      • Chrome and Edge Extensions
      • Edge Artifact Synchronization and Tracking Multiple Profiles
      • Edge HTML and the Spartan.edb Database
      • Reading List, WebNotes, Top Sites, and SweptTabs
    • Internet Explorer
      • IE Forensic File Locations
      • History Files: Index.dat and WebCache.dat
      • Cache Recovery and Timestamps
      • Microsoft Universal Application Artifacts
      • IE Download History
      • Gaining Access to Credentials Stored in the Windows Vault
      • Internet Explorer Tab Recovery Analysis
      • Cross-Device Synchronization, Including Tabs, History, Favorites, and Passwords
    • Firefox
      • Firefox Artifact Locations
      • SQLite Files and Firefox Quantum Updates
      • Download History
      • Firefox Cache2 Examinations
      • Detailed Visit Type Data
      • Form History
      • Session Recovery
      • Firefox Extensions
      • Firefox Cross-Device Synchronization
    • Private Browsing and Browser Artifact Recovery
      • IE and EdgeHTML InPrivate Browsing
      • Chrome, Edge, and Firefox Private Browsing
      • Investigating the Tor Browser
      • Identifying Selective Database Deletion
    • SQLite and ESE Database Carving and Examination of Additional Browser Artifacts
      • DOM and Web Storage Objects
      • Rebuilding Cached Web Pages
      • Browser Ancestry

FOR500.6: Windows Forensics Challenge


Nothing will prepare you more as an investigator than a full hands-on challenge that requires you to use the skills and knowledge presented throughout the course. You will have the option to work individually or in teams on a real forensic case. Students will be provided new evidence to analyze, and the exercise will step them through the entire case flow, including proper acquisition, analysis, and reporting and presentation of investigative findings. Fast forensics techniques will be used in order to rapidly profile computer usage and discover the most critical pieces of evidence to answer investigative questions.

This complex case involves an investigation into one of the most recent versions of the Windows operating system. The evidence is real and provides the most realistic training opportunity currently available. Solving the case requires students to use all of the skills gained from each of the previous course sections.

The section concludes with a mock trial involving presentations of the evidence collected. The team with the best in-class presentation and documentation wins the challenge - and the case!

  • Windows 10 forensic challenge
  • Bonus: One additional full-length take home exercise to continue honing your skills!
  • Digital Forensics Capstone
    • Analysis
      • Start at the Beginning with a New Set of Evidence
      • Find Critical Evidence Following the Evidence Analysis Methods Discussed Throughout the Week
      • Examine Memory, Registry, Chat, Browser, Recovered Files, Synchronized Artifacts, Installed Malware, and More
    • Reporting
      • Build an Investigative Timeline
      • Answer Critical Investigative Questions with Factual Evidence
      • Practice Executive Summary and Report Generation


Pricing & Registration


There are no prerequisite courses required to take this course. The artifacts and tool-agnostic techniques you will learn will lead to the successful analysis of any cyber incident and crime involving a Windows Operating System.

Lab Requirements


A properly configured system is required for each student participating in this course. Before coming to class, carefully read and follow these instructions exactly.

You can use any 64-bit version of Windows, Mac OSX, or Linux as your core operating system provided you can install and run VMware virtualization products. Students are provided with a digital forensic lab built into a VMware Virtual Machine. You must have a minimum of 8 gigabytes (GB) of RAM or higher for the class virtual machine to function, but 16 GB of RAM is highly recommend for the best experience.

It is critical that your CPU and operating system support 64-bit applications so that our 64-bit guest virtual machine can run on your laptop. VMware provides a free tool for Windows and Linux that will detect whether your host supports 64-bit guest virtual machines. For further troubleshooting, this article also provides good instructions for Windows users to determine more about CPU and OS capabilities. For Macs, please use this support page from Apple to determine 64-bit capability.

Please download and install VMware Workstation, VMware Fusion, or VMware Player on your system prior to the start of the class. Your version of VMware cannot be more than one version behind the latest available version of the software. If you do not own a licensed copy of VMware Workstation or Fusion, you can download a free 30-day trial copy from VMware.


  • CPU: 64-bit Intel i5/i7 (4th generation+) x64 bit 2.0+ GHz processor or more recent processor is mandatory for this class (Important a 64-bit system processor is MANDATORY.)
  • 8 GB of RAM or higher is mandatory for this class (Important - 8 GB of RAM or higher of RAM is mandatory and minimum. For the best experience, 16GB of RAM is recommended.)
  • USB 3.0
  • 300+ GB host system hard drive minimum
  • 200 GB minimum of free space on your host hard drive: Free space is absolutely critical to host the virtual machines and evidence files provided with the class
  • Students must have Local Administrator access within their host operating system and access to the BIOS settings


A USB removable storage device is necessary to complete one optional exercise in the course. The storage size of the USB media should be larger than the RAM size of the student laptop.


Host Operating System: Fully patched and updated Windows, Mac OSX (10.10+), or a recent version of the Linux operating system (released 2016 or later) that also can install and run VMware virtualization products (VMware Workstation, VMware Fusion, or VMware Player). Please note: It is necessary to fully update your host operating system prior to the class to ensure that you have the right drivers and patches installed to utilize the latest USB 3.0 devices. Those who use a Linux host must also be able to access ExFAT partitions using the appropriate kernel or FUSE module

CRITICAL NOTE: Apple systems using the M1 processor line cannot perform the necessary virtualization functionality and therefore cannot in any way be used for this course.


  1. Microsoft Office (any version) with Excel or OpenOffice with Calc installed on your host. You can download Office Trial Software online (free for 30 days)
  2. Install VMware Workstation, VMware Fusion, or VMware Player (your version should be no more than one version behind the latest available from VMware)
  3. Download and install 7Zip on your host (Mac users should ensure they have a capable unarchiving tool such as Keka)


  1. Bring the proper system hardware (64bit/8+GB Ram) and operating system configuration
  2. Install VMware (Workstation, Player, or Fusion), MS Office, and 7zip and make sure everything works before class.

If you have additional questions about the laptop specifications, please contact laptop_prep@sans.org.

"I have been in IT infrastructure for over 20 years and my mind is blown by how much could be learned in this training. I recommend this class for everyone." - Nick Condos, ACADIA

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For a special rate please contact Jaime Arbelaez-Sales Manager directly at 787-993-3607.  Please reference "GM SecTec Training | Jan 24-29"

Rates are subject to availability.