What You Will Learn
This course is designed for professionals seeking a comprehensive technical ability to understand, analyze, and defend the various wireless technologies that have become ubiquitous in our environments and, increasingly, key entrance points for attackers.
The authors of SEC617, as penetration testers themselves, know that many organizations overlook wireless security as an attack surface, and therefore fail to establish required defenses and monitoring, even though wireless technologies are now commonplace in executive suites, financial departments, government offices, manufacturing production lines, retail networks, medical devices, and air traffic control systems. Given the known risks of insecure wireless technologies and the attacks used against them, SEC617 was designed to help people build the vital skills needed to identify, evaluate, assess, and defend against these threats. These skills are 'must-have' for any high-performing security organization.
NOW COVERING WI-FI, ZIGBEE, Z-WAVE, DECT, RFID, AND SOFTWARE -DEFINED RADIO
For many analysts, "wireless" was once synonymous with "Wi-Fi," the ever-present networking technology, and many organizations deployed complex security systems to protect these networks. Today, wireless takes on a much broader meaning -- not only encompassing the security of Wi-Fi systems, but also the security of Bluetooth, Zigbee, Z-Wave, DECT, RFID, NFC, contactless smart cards, and even proprietary wireless systems. To effectively evaluate the security of wireless systems, your skillset needs to expand to include many different types of wireless technologies.
EXPLORE WI-FI ATTACKS AGAINST WINDOWS, MacOS, iOS, AND ANDROID
SEC617 will give you the skills you need to understand the security strengths and weaknesses of wireless systems. You will learn how to evaluate the ever-present cacophony of Wi-Fi networks and identify the Wi-Fi access points (APs) and client devices that threaten your organization. You will learn how to assess, attack, and exploit deficiencies in modern Wi-Fi deployments using WPA2 technology, including sophisticated WPA2 Enterprise networks. You will gain a strong, practical understanding of the many weaknesses in Wi-Fi protocols and how to apply that understanding to modern wireless systems. Along with identifying and attacking Wi-Fi access points, you will learn to identify and exploit the behavioral differences in how client devices scan for, identify, and select APs, with deep insight into the behavior of the Windows 10, macOS, Apple iOS, and Android Wi-Fi stacks.
EXAMINE BLE TECHNOLOGY WITH NEW INSIGHT, CERTIFYING DEVICES FOR USE
A significant portion of the course focuses on Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) attacks, targeting a variety of devices, including wireless keyboards, smart light bulbs, mobile devices, audio streaming devices, and more. You will learn to assess a target Bluetooth device, identify the present (or absent) security controls, and apply a solid checklist to certify a device's security for use within your organization.
LEARN TO ATTACK POPULAR WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY BEYOND WI-FI TARGETS
Beyond analyzing Wi-Fi and Bluetooth security threats, analysts must also understand many other wireless technologies that are widely utilized in complex systems. SEC617 provides insight and hands-on training to help analysts identify and assess the use of Zigbee and Z-Wave wireless systems used for automation, control, and smart home systems. The course also investigates the security of cordless telephony systems in the worldwide Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony (DECT) standard, including audio eavesdropping and recording attacks.
ATTACK AND MANIPULATE RFID AND NFC SYSTEMS
Radio frequency identification (RFID), near field communication (NFC), and contactless smart card systems are more popular than ever in countless applications such as point of sale systems and data center access control systems. You will learn how to assess and evaluate these deployments using hands-on exercises to exploit the same kinds of flaws discovered in mass transit smart card systems, hotel guest room access systems, and more.
GAIN NEW INSIGHT INTO WIRELESS PROTOCOLS WITH SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO
In addition to standards-based wireless systems, we also dig deeper into the radio spectrum using software-defined radio (SDR) systems to scour for signals. Using SDR, you will gain new insight into how widely pervasive wireless systems are deployed. With your skills in identifying, decoding, and evaluating the data these systems transmit, you will be able to spot vulnerabilities even in custom wireless infrastructures.
JUMPSTART YOUR TOOLKIT WITH SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE ASSESSMENT TOOLS SUPPLIED IN CLASS
SEC617 is a technical, hands-on penetration testing skill-development course that requires a wide variety of super-useful hardware and software tools to successfully build new skills. In this course, you will receive the SANS Wireless Assessment Toolkit (SWAT), which is a collection of hardware and software tools that will jumpstart your ability to assess wireless systems. The toolkit includes a high-powered 802.11b/g/n Wi-Fi card, a long-range Bluetooth Classic/Low Energy adapter, a high-frequency RFID reader and writer, and a software-defined radio receiver. You will also receive a customized Linux software environment so you can work on assessing systems and avoid fighting hardware/software incompatibility.
Syllabus (36 CPEs)Download PDF
The first section of the course quickly looks at wireless threats and attack surfaces and analyzes where you will likely see non-Wi-Fi systems deployed in modern networks. We start off with a look at fundamental analysis techniques for evaluating Wi-Fi networks, including the identification and analysis of rogue devices, and finish with a dive into remote penetration testing techniques using compromised Windows 10 and macOS devices to pivot.
Characterize the Wireless Threat
- Recognizing protocol weaknesses and cryptographic failures across wireless technologies
- Why popular smart phones increase our exposure to attack
- Anatomy of a wireless attack: How real-world attackers exploit wireless systems
- Introduction to the SWAT kit
- Leveraging built-in functionality in every Wi-Fi card for penetration testing
- Wireless packet capture on Linux, Windows, and macOS
- Overcoming physical-layer challenges in IEEE 802.11n, IEEE 802.11ac packet sniffers
- Detecting cheaters: Radio regulatory domain bypass hacks
- Packet capture, filter, and analysis with tcpdump, Wireshark, and Kismet
- Tools and techniques for understanding your radio frequency exposure with topographic range maps
Rogue Access Point (AP) Analysis
- Characterizing the threat and attacker motives for rogue APs
- Wired-side analysis for rogue APs using open-source tools
- Filtering out Wi-Fi noise to focus on and characterize rogue device threats
- Correlating Wi-Fi devices with your network infrastructure
- Effective unauthorized transmitter location analysis techniques
After developing skills needed to capture and evaluate Wi-Fi activity, we start our look at exploiting Wi-Fi, targeting AP and client devices. We cover techniques that apply to any Wi-Fi products, from consumer to enterprise-class devices, focusing on understanding protocol-level deficiencies that will continue to be applied throughout the course on non-Wi-Fi wireless systems as well.
Exploiting Wi-Fi Hotspots
- Bypassing authentication on hotspot networks
- Exploiting mobile application data disclosure on open networks
- Luring Wi-Fi client victims with Wi-Fi hotspot impersonation
- Leveraging sidejacking attacks against hotspot networks
Wi-Fi Client Attacks
- Leveraging Wi-Fi timing attacks for traffic manipulation
- Bypassing client isolation security on Wi-Fi networks
- Wi-Fi client privacy and isolation attacks through preferred network list disclosure
- Leveraging commercial tools such as the Wi-Fi Pineapple for AP impersonation
- Integrating Metasploit Meterpreter payloads in Wi-Fi network injection attacks
- A brief look at WEP technology and exploitation
- Applying the cryptography in WEP to non-Wi-Fi protocols
Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks
- Identifying types of DoS attacks and attack targets
- Leveraging RF jammers in a pen test
- Selective client DoS targeting to manipulate network roaming events
- Single-client to entire-network Wi-Fi DoS techniques
Wi-Fi Fuzzing for Bug Discovery
- Introduction to fuzzing techniques
- Identifying complex parsing issues in Wi-Fi protocols
- Using Scapy to build malformed packets
- Identifying bugs in APs and client devices through fuzzing
- Applying fuzzing as part of an overall Wi-Fi security analysis
We finish our look at Wi-Fi attack techniques with a detailed look at assessing and exploiting WPA2 networks. Starting with WPA2 consumer networks, we investigate the flaws associated with pre-shared key networks and Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) deployments, continuing with a look at exploiting WPA2 Enterprise networks using various Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) methods.
We continue to investigate the security of wireless networks on day 3, switching to non-Wi-Fi analysis with a look at exploiting the worldwide Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony (DECT) standard to capture and export audio conversations from cordless headsets and phones. We also investigate the security of Zigbee and IEEE 802.15.4 networks, looking at cryptographic flaws, key management failures, and an introduction to hardware attacks.
Attacking WPA2 Pre-Shared Key Networks
- In-depth analysis of key derivation functions in WPA2
- Capturing and evaluating WPA2-PSK client network authentication exchanges
- Attacking the passphrase selection of WPA2-PSK
Attacking WPA2 Enterprise Networks
- Differentiating PSK-based WPA2 and WPA2 Enterprise networks
- Leveraging identity disclosure in WPA2 Enterprise networks
- Exploiting Windows 10 Native Wi-Fi and PEAP networks
- Exploiting iOS and Android Enterprise Wi-Fi network roaming behavior
- Using Hostapd-WPE for Enterprise network impersonation
- Password recovery through MS-CHAPv2 cracking
Attacking Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony Deployments
- DECT as a cordless telephony and data application technology
- DECT physical and MAC layer fundamentals
- Evaluating the DECT authentication and encryption mechanisms
- Eavesdropping and recording audio conversations on DECT cordless phones
Attacking Zigbee Deployments
- In-depth analysis of Zigbee and IEEE 802.15.4 physical and MAC layer architecture
- Zigbee and IEEE 802.15.4 authentication and cryptographic controls
- Weaknesses in Zigbee key provisioning and management mechanisms
- Tools for eavesdropping on and manipulating Zigbee networks
- Exploiting Zigbee Over-the-Air key provisioning
- Locating Zigbee devices with signal analysis tools
Bluetooth technology is nearly as pervasive as Wi-Fi, with widespread adoption in smart phones, fitness trackers, wireless keyboard, smart watches, and more. In this module, we dig into the Bluetooth Classic, Enhanced Data Rate, and Low Energy protocols, including tools and techniques to evaluate target devices for vulnerabilities.
Immediately following our look at Bluetooth technology, we jump into the practical application of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology to identify, decode, and assess proprietary wireless systems. We investigate the hardware and software available for SDR systems, and look at the tools and techniques to start exploring this exciting area of wireless security assessment.
Bluetooth Introduction and Attack Techniques
- Understanding the physical layer evolution of Bluetooth and packet capture techniques
- Bluetooth pairing techniques and vulnerabilities
- Attacking Bluetooth pairing for PIN and key recovery
- Techniques for identifying non-discoverable Bluetooth devices
Bluetooth Low Energy Introduction and Attack Techniques
- Recognizing BLE Frequency-Hopping RF patterns
- Security analysis of BLE pairing options -- just works, OOP, passkey, and numeric comparison
- Analysis of expensive and inexpensive BLE packet capture tools for Windows, Linux, and Android devices
- Scanning BLE device services with bluetoothctl, Android apps, and related tools
- Practical exploitation of BLE services
Practical Application of Software-Defined Radio (SDR)
- Guide to using SDR in a penetration test
- RF spectrum visualization and signal hunting with SDR# and GQRX
- Decoding ADS-B aircraft beacon traffic
- Eavesdropping on POCSAG and FLEX pager messaging
- GSM cell tower scanning and evaluation with SDR
- Leveraging capture and replay attacks to exploit vehicle keyless entry systems
On day 5, we evaluate RFID technology in its multiple forms to identify the risks associated with privacy loss and tracking, while also building an understanding of both low-frequency and high-frequency RFID systems and NFC. We examine the security associated with contactless Point of Sale (PoS) terminals, including Apple Pay and Google Wallet, and proximity lock access systems from HID and other vendors. We also examine generalized techniques for attacking smart card systems, including critical data analysis skills needed to bypass the intended security of smart card systems used for mass transit systems, concert venues, bike rentals, and more.
- Understanding the components, transmission frequencies, and protocols in RFID systems
- Differentiating active and passive RFID systems
- Understanding NFC systems components and protocols
- Practical range extensions in RFID attacks
RFID Tracking and Privacy Attacks
- Practical location disclosure attacks in RFID systems
- Case study: E-Z Pass location disclosure threats
- Manipulating Apple iBeacon location tracking systems
- RFID tracking through Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) tags
Low-Frequency RFID Attacks
- Case study: cloning RFID tags used for bike rental systems
- Leveraging RFIDiot for low-frequency RFID attacks
- Attacking HID ProxCard proximity lock systems
- Leveraging the ProxMark RDV2 for low-frequency RFID attacks
- Brute-forcing HID identifiers for unauthorized access
- Extending range in HID cloning attacks
- Manual low-frequency tag analysis and bitstream decoding
Exploiting Contactless RFID Smart Cards
- Conducting smart card reconnaissance analysis with Linux and Android
- Attacking Europay-Mastercard-Visa (EMV) PoS systems
- Exploiting MIFARE Classic smart card systems
- Effective smart card cloning with UID impersonation
- Attacking MIFARE Ultralight, Ultralight-C, and DESFire smart card systems
- Emulating smart cards with the ProxMark RDV2
- Decoding the NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) protocol
- Reading and writing NFC/NDEF tags
- Analysis of Android Beam, Google Wallet, and Apple Pay NFC systems
- Exploiting NFC smart toys
- Attacking Android devices with malicious NFC tags
On the last day of class we will pull together all the concepts and technology we have covered during the week in a comprehensive Capture the Flag event. In this hands-on exercise, you will have the option to participate in multiple roles: identifying unauthorized/rogue Wi-Fi access points, attacking live and recorded Wi-Fi networks, decoding proprietary wireless signals, exploiting smart card deficiencies, and more.
During this wireless security event you will put into practice the skills you have learned in order to evaluate systems and defend against attackers, simulating the realistic environment you will be prepared to protect when you get back to the office.
GIAC Assessing and Auditing Wireless Networks
The GAWN certification is designed for technologists who need to assess the security of wireless networks. The certification focuses on the different security mechanisms for wireless networks, the tools and techniques used to evaluate and exploit weaknesses, and techniques used to analyze wireless networks. Students will not only gain experience using tools to assess wireless networks, they will understand how the tools operate and the weaknesses in protocols that they evaluate.
802.11 Fuzzing Attacks, Attacking Weak Encryption, Bluetooth Attacks, and Bluetooth Low Energy Attacks
Bridging the Air Gap, DECT, DoS on Wireless Networks, High-Frequency RFID Attacks, and RFID applications
Hotspots, Low-Frequency RFID Attacks, NFC, Practical SDR Attacks, and Rogue Networks
Sniffing Wireless, Wireless Basics, Wireless Client Attacks, WPA2, and Zigbee
IMPORTANT - BRING YOUR OWN LAPTOP WITH WINDOWS
To get the most value out of this course, students are required to bring their own laptop with a wireless card so that they can connect directly to the workshop wireless network we will create. It is the students' responsibility to make sure the system is properly configured with all drivers necessary to connect to the network.
Some of the course exercises are based on Windows, while others focus on Linux. VMware Workstation is required for the class. If you plan to use a Macintosh, please make sure you bring VMware Fusion, along with a Windows guest virtual machine.
Host Operating System: Latest version of Windows 10, macOS 10.15.x or later, or Linux that also can install and run VMware virtualization products described below. It is necessary to fully update your host operating system prior to the class to ensure you have the right drivers and patches installed to utilize the latest USB 3.0 devices. Those who use a Linux host must also be able to access exFAT partitions using the appropriate kernel or FUSE modules.
IMPORTANT NOTE: You may be required to disable your anti-virus tools temporarily for some exercises, so make sure you have the anti-virus administrator permissions to do so. DO NOT plan on just killing your anti-virus service or processes, because most anti-virus tools still function, even when their associated services and processes have been terminated. For many enterprise-managed clients, disabling your anti-virus tool may require a different password than the Administrator account password. Please bring that administrator password for your anti-virus tool.
Enterprise VPN clients may interfere with the network configuration required to participate in the class. If your system has an enterprise VPN client installed, you may need to uninstall it for the exercises in class.
Download and install either VMware Workstation Pro 15.5.x, VMware Player 15.5.x or Fusion 11.5.x or higher versions before class. If you do not own a licensed copy of VMware Workstation or Fusion, you can download a free 30-day trial copy from VMware. VMware will send you a time-limited serial number if you register for the trial at their website.
Other virtualization software, such as VirtualBox and Hyper-V, are not appropriate because of compatibility and troubleshooting problems you might encounter during class.
VMware Workstation Pro and VMware Player on Windows 10 is not compatible with Windows 10 Credential Guard and Device Guard technologies. Please disable these capabilities for the duration of the class, if they're enabled on your system, by following instructions in this document.
You do not need to bring a Linux system if you plan to use our Linux image in VMware. However, you are required to bring VMware Workstation or VMware Fusion as described above. The class does not support Virtual Box, VirtualPC, or other non-VMware virtualization products.
Mandatory Laptop Hardware Requirements:
- 64-bit, 2.0 GHz CPU minimum or higher
- 8 GB RAM minimum with 16 GB or higher recommended
- 60 GB available hard-drive space
- Integrated or external Wi-Fi card for use in Windows
- Integrated or external Ethernet adapter for use in Windows
- One free USB 2/3 port (Mac users may require a Thunderbolt to USB adapter)
During the workshop, you will be connecting to one of the most hostile networks on Earth! Your laptop might be attacked. Do not have any sensitive data stored on the system. SANS is not responsible for your system if someone in the class attacks it in the workshop.
By bringing the right equipment and preparing in advance, you can maximize what you will see and learn, as well as have a lot of fun.
Your course media will now be delivered via download. The media files for class can be large, some in the 40 - 50 GB range. You need to allow plenty of time for the download to complete. Internet connections and speed vary greatly and are dependent on many different factors. Therefore, it is not possible to give an estimate of the length of time it will take to download your materials. Please start your course media downloads as you get the link. You will need your course media immediately on the first day of class. Waiting until the night before the class starts to begin your download has a high probability of failure.
SANS has begun providing printed materials in PDF form. Additionally, certain classes are using an electronic workbook in addition to the PDFs. The number of classes using eWorkbooks will grow quickly. In this new environment, we have found that a second monitor and/or a tablet device can be useful by keeping the class materials visible while the instructor is presenting or while you are working on lab exercises.
It has been amazing to watch the progression of wireless technology and the near ubiquitous adoption of it over the past several years. Wi-Fi has grown in maturity and offers strong authentication and encryption options to protect networks. Yet many organizations continue to fail to implement these protections appropriately. We have also watched attacker sophistication grow with their toolsets, giving them the upper hand in exploiting technology we rely on for critical tasks. This pattern has us concerned. With implementation of wireless technology on the rise, the attack surface continues to grow as well.
It is not surprising that other wireless protocols have also emerged to satisfy the needs of lightweight embedded device connectivity (Zigbee, IEEE 802.15.4, and Z-Wave), specialty interference-resilient connectivity (Bluetooth Classic, Bluetooth Low Energy, and DECT), physical security and contactless payments (NFC and RFID), and many others using unknown standards-based and proprietary wireless technologies. It is no longer enough to just be a Wi-Fi expert; you also need to be able to evaluate the entire wireless threat landscape across a whole host of technologies.
We are very excited to deliver even more hands-on labs and a suite of hardware tools to equip modern wireless security analysts with practical skills that they can bring back to their organization and apply on day one. The skills you will build in this class will be valuable for today's wireless technology, for tomorrow's technology advancements, and for other complex systems you have to evaluate in the future.
-- Larry Pesce and James Leyte-Vidal