What You Will Learn
Supply chain attacks go unnoticed on average for 235 days and do more damage as a result of us not having a deep understanding of the products being used on a network. Product security tests help obtain a comprehensive understanding of how choosing to use a particular product in your organization can increase your attack surface and affect your threat model and risk posture. This makes product security testing vital in preparing your organization to defend and recover from software supply chain attacks.
SEC568 is a practical on-ramp into the world of product security testing and risk analysis through more than 20 hands-on exercises designed to be challenging to both beginners and more advanced students. By utilizing offensive tactics with a defensive mindset, students will learn how to analyze the risk of introducing desktop, mobile, proprietary protocols, and hardware devices into your environment. You will use a wide variety of technical skills to gain a deep understanding of how a target operates.
Each section of the class will be accompanied by flow diagrams that provide each student a roadmap on how to navigate these complex topics with documented processes and clearly defined goals. As the class progresses, sections will increase in technical depth and difficulty. The number of hands-on exercises and the duration of them also increases proportionally as you gain new knowledge and develop new skills.
You will notice the class also gains a larger focus on networking as we dive deeper into product security testing. This networking focus is critical for a complete risk assessment in almost all organizations, as this threat vector has the highest likelihood to cause the most damage.
In the last section, the class culminates with a capstone event, a fully guided 5-hour exercise in which students will apply the entire product security testing process, starting with a closed-box analysis on a popular commercial application.
You Will Learn
- Windows OS basics
- Linux OS basics
- Android OS basics
- How to conduct efficient internet searching
- Networking fundamental concepts
- How to decrypt networking traffic
- How to build custom Scapy networking layers
- How to collect, prepare, and analyze data with Python, Pandas DataFrame, and Jupyter Notebooks
- When to continue or stop a product security assessment
- A variety of threat modeling concepts
- Different methods for determining risk
- Basics of network fuzzing
- How to analyze decompiled code
You Will Be Able To
- Conduct a product security test
- Reduce the impact of supply chain attacks on your organization
- Evaluate a Windows, Linux, or Android product for threats
- Perform basic static firmware analysis to understand what is running on a device
- Determine how a system changes because of installing new software
- Use Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques to analyze and present a large amount of data
- Dissect propriety protocols
- Build a threat model to articulate the biggest risks and mitigations
- Construct attack trees and use a risk scoring methodology to determine the risk of each threat discovered in previous phases
You Will Receive With This Course
- A Corellium license
- 3 virtual machines
- Process flow charts
- An electronic workbook with step-by-step instructions for 20+ fully functional labs that do not expire and can be repeated any time after the course
Syllabus (30 CPEs)
The first section of this course describes the principles associated with both supply chain attacks and product security testing. We start to navigate the "why" and the "what" to product security testing, followed by which skills are important for success. We introduce our main methodology, our toolbox included in the supplied virtual machines, and the name of our fictious company you will be working for during the class, "Think Red, Act Blue". The main technical emphasis for section one will be to explore the basic, yet critical concept, of online product research followed by our first section on basic enumeration. Through lectures and 3 hands-on exercises we will explore how to use simple tools such as binwalk, Microsoft Attack Surface Analyzer (ASA), Microsoft's Sysinternal Suite, ProcDOT and associated product security methodologies to begin to understand how your target accomplishes its main goals.
- Initial recon of product, existing CVEs, and vendor website
- Unpacking firmware and examining components
- Basic enumeration on Windows
Course overview and methodology
- This module is focused on an introduction to product security assessments and its application to combating supply chain attacks. We will start by covering the who, what, when, where, and how methodologies for product security assessments, with a particular emphasis on online product research and basic enumeration.
General and software supply chain application
- In this module we will explore several practical examples of when you want to deploy the concepts and processes of this course in real-world scenarios not related to supply chain attacks, followed by diving into supply chain attacks and ultimately demonstrating how product security testing is a critical component of your defenses.
Online product research
- With an overview of the process under our belt, in this module we will start to follow the Product Security Testing flow chart. We will look at how to effectively acquire system requirements and efficiently perform online product research, a concept that is recurring and critical to product security testing.
Basic enumeration on hardware devices, Linux & Windows
- In this module we will embark on understanding the core technical concepts needed to start evaluating a target using basic enumeration. We will start with the overall methodology of basic enumeration and then dive into the specific core concepts and tools needed for hardware devices, Linux, and Windows.
The second section of the course will close out our study of basic enumeration by looking at Android devices and networking concepts that fit within the basic enumeration methodology. Students will be provided with access to a cloud-based mobile emulation platform (Corellium) to complete the first lab of this section. This will allow for an in-depth conversation around the important role threat modeling plays in product security assessments and is a crucial first step to reducing the impact of supply chain attacks. Doing threat modeling and answering questions related to product security testing requires sifting through a large amount of data. In this section we will introduce Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA), a common workflow to conduct analysis used to try to make sense of the data and present the results. Through lectures, demos, and hands-on exercises we will learn how to explore this data using data science tools like Python, Jupyter Notebooks, Pandas DataFrame, and graphical libraries like Matplotlib, among others. Lastly, this section will start to segue into the deeper technical concepts of the course by introducing deep enumeration.
- Basic enumeration of an Android Package Kit (APK) with Corellium
- Initial network traffic profiling with Pandas DataFrame & Jupyter Notebooks
- Investigating network traffic on Android
- Threat modeling products
Basic enumeration on Android
- We have now covered basic enumeration on the most likely system to run across on servers, client machines, and hardware devices. For this section we will pivot to another large category of devices which you may need to audit as part of an assessment - mobile devices. We will cover important concepts related to product security testing at a high level, walk through Android fundamentals, and provide useful tools for performing basic enumeration on Android systems.
Basic networking analysis
- This module will introduce network analysis at a basic level as it pertains to basic enumeration. Besides exploring important fundamental networking concepts, this module will leverage some basic data analysis and traffic profiling with Jupyter Notebooks and Pandas DataFrame to help demonstrate how to turn complex analysis into a more simplistic and visual task.
- Threat modeling is a crucial concept in successful product security testing but even more important is when to perform threat modeling. This module will discuss different types of threat modeling, demonstrate one suggested approach within product security testing, and cover the information required to build a useful model. This module will conclude with a review of how our process up to this point has impacted the way we defend against supply chain attacks.
- Section 2 will just begin to explore the concept of deep enumeration. We will introduce deep enumeration, explore how a threat model influences deep enumeration, and discuss when to deploy these techniques. This module will begin increasing the technical depth of the course and push students' knowledge of finer topics.
This section is all about deep enumeration, the process of deeper technical analysis to answer critical questions from a threat model. We will focus on two deep enumeration skills: binary code analysis and network analysis of unknown protocols. In the first half of section 3, we will learn how to use decompiler tools to access the underlying code of an application and unpack archives when needed. This will culminate in a hands-on lab using JetBrain's dotPeek to answer critical questions related to supply chain attacks regarding how an application is being updated. Network traffic is often a key input to a system and a common entry point for attackers. To dive deeper into network analysis, this section will also take a pause to provide a primer into Scapy, a Python framework designed to manipulate networking packets. Armed with the knowledge and skills covered in this section, you will be better prepared to start dissecting proprietary or unknown protocols later in the course.
- Using APKLab and HTTP Toolkit to defeat cert pinning
- Learning from decompiled source code
- Using Scapy to create a 3-way handshake
- Searching for networking artifacts within payloads
- Bonus: Learning from decompiled source code on Android
Binary code analysis
- The ground truth to how a target or system works is its source code. Unless the application or device you are auditing is open source, you will not have access to this code. Binary code analysis is the concept of performing a code review without having access to the source code. This module walks through some basic skills to apply binary code analysis during product security testing as one of the two core concepts covered in this course within deep enumeration.
- In order to dive deeper into network analysis, it is beneficial to be able to programmatically analysis and create networking packets. Scapy is a python module that helps take our analysis and testing to the next level. This module of section 3 will teach the basics of Scapy needed for product security testing.
Understanding proprietary protocols
- We will leverage the knowledge of Scapy acquired in the previous module and apply it to the deep enumeration concept of understanding unknown or proprietary protocols. This last module of section 3 will be an introduction to proprietary protocols that will be continued in section 4.
This section will conclude our exploration of deep enumeration and work toward finalizing a product security test project. We begin with a continuation and finalization of dissecting proprietary protocols using Scapy to create custom layers and explain the basics of networking fuzzing. This will bring us to our final risk analysis section where we will focus on creating attack trees and applying risk scoring methods to assess the risk of supply chain attacks, among other risks to the Think Red, Act Blue organization. The section will conclude with important final topics that will allow us to wrap up our product security assessment, such as reporting and vulnerability disclosure.
- Learning through enumerating patterns
- Finding your network traffic's heartbeat
- Using basic Linux tools to analyze unknown payloads
- Basic fuzzing with Scapy
- Results analysis
Dissecting proprietary protocols
- This module is one of the most technically challenging sections of the course, as we discuss how to use techniques such as enumerating patterns and finding heartbeat packets to help gain a glimpse of the purpose of every byte in a packet payload. We will examine several real protocols and lean on previous modules such as data analysis with Pandas DataFrame and Scapy to gain as much insight as possible.
- Every threat model should contain a risk of unknown vulnerabilities. While fuzzing is often considered a vast and sometimes daunting topic in security, it can help reduce the risk of unknown vulnerabilities plaguing your network. This module will explore the basic concepts of networking fuzzing as part of deep enumeration and the value it can bring to a product security test.
- Determining the risk associated with our technical findings is the most important step of a product security test event. This module will focus on questions like: What does this mean for my organization? What steps can I take to mitigate my findings? Here we will study how to turn your previous threat model into realistic attack trees and quantify the risk for each scenario using a modified and improved version of the DREAD risk scoring method.
- In many cases it will be required to report your findings and processes throughout your organization. This module will talk about industry best practices in reporting your findings from product security testing and highlight important items directly related to supply chain attacks.
- In some cases, your analysis will result in the discovery of new vulnerabilities. This module will highlight best practices in reporting your team's finding to the affected vendors.
The course culminates in an all-day hands-on lab designed to give each student the experience of completing a product security test from start to finish. Students will be given a real application to test during this course section, which will apply the most crucial concepts learned throughout each previous section using the toolbox included in the supplied virtual machines and cloud-based labs.
- Basic enumeration: Installation analysis
- Basic enumeration: Execution analysis
- Threat modeling
- Deep enumeration: Network analysis
- Results analysis
Introduction to target
- The section will start with an introduction to the target application and the basics of how it functions. This will help frame the following exercises and reduce the time needed to learn the basics of the program.
Hands-on product security testing event
- The product security test for this section has been broken down into 5 hands-on exercises. Each exercise will guide the student through one of the core concepts of the product security testing process, including basic enumeration, threat modeling, deep enumeration, and results analysis.
- Each lab exercise will be followed by an instructor-led discussion on what was uncovered during the lab. This will help ensure all students stay on the best path to provide the highest amount of value from the event.
- Basic Python coding skills
- Basic OS fundamentals
- Basic networking knowledge
Understanding of core security principals
- Experience using VMware and virtual machines
Important! Bring your own system configured according to these instructions!
A properly configured system is required to fully participate in this course. If you do not carefully read and follow these instructions, you will likely leave the class unsatisfied because you will not be able to participate in hands-on exercises that are essential to this course. Therefore, we strongly urge you to arrive with a system meeting all the requirements specified for the course.
CRITICAL NOTE: Apple systems using the M1 processor line cannot perform the necessary virtualization functionality and therefore cannot in any way be used for this course.
A properly configured system is required for each student participating in this course. Before coming to class, carefully read and follow these instructions exactly.
Host Operating System: Latest version of Windows 10, macOS 10.15.x or later, or Linux that also can install and run VMware virtualization products described below. It is necessary to fully update your host operating system prior to the class to ensure you have the right drivers and patches installed to utilize the latest USB 3.0 devices. Those who use a Linux host must also be able to access exFAT partitions using the appropriate kernel or FUSE modules. You also must have 8 GB of RAM or higher for the VM to function properly in the class.
It is critical that your CPU and operating system support 64-bit so that our 64-bit guest virtual machine will run on your laptop.
In addition to having 64-bit capable hardware, AMD-V, Intel VT-x, or the equivalent must be enabled in BIOS/UEFI.
Download and install either VMware Workstation Pro 16.X.X+, VMware Player 16.X.X+ or Fusion 12.X+ or higher versions before class. If you do not own a licensed copy of VMware Workstation or Fusion, you can download a free 30-day trial copy from VMware. VMware will send you a time-limited serial number if you register for the trial at their website.
Other virtualization software, such as VirtualBox and Hyper-V, are not appropriate because of compatibility and troubleshooting problems you might encounter during class.
VMware Workstation Pro and VMware Player on Windows 10 is not compatible with Windows 10 Credential Guard and Device Guard technologies. Please disable these capabilities for the duration of the class, if they're enabled on your system, by following instructions in this document.
MANDATORY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:
- CPU: 64-bit 2.0+ GHz processor or higher-based system is mandatory for this class (Important - Please Read: a 64-bit system processor is mandatory)
- BIOS/UEFI: VT-x, AMD-V, or the equivalent must be enabled in the BIOS/UEFI
- RAM: 8 GB (gigabytes) of RAM or higher is mandatory for this class (Important - Please Read: 8 GB of RAM or higher is mandatory. 16 gigs of RAM is recommended)
- Wireless Ethernet 802.11 B/G/N/AC
- USB 3.0 Ports highly recommended
- Disk: 100 Gigabytes of free disk space
- Administrative access to disable any AV, endpoint security software or host-based firewall
- Ability to disable your enterprise VPN client temporarily for some exercises
- Ability to disable your anti-virus tools temporarily for some exercises
- VMware Workstation Pro 16.X.X+, VMware Player 16.X.X+ or Fusion 12.X+
- A Linux and Windows virtual machines will be provided in class
In our many years of experience conducting security assessments, we have observed the importance of being able to develop a holistic picture of the major areas of risk of an organization, while at the same time being prepared to zero-in on the risks introduced by a particular device or a specific product. However, the reality is that many organizations lack the knowledge and skills required to do a proper product security assessment. Some of these often rely on vulnerability scans that offer minimal information, with a focus on patching the systems evaluated and implementing generic security controls. Many others simply choose to ignore these threats altogether, closing their eyes to the reality and hoping for the best, while silently transferring the risk to their users, customers, and other stakeholders.
While it is true that threat actors still use unpatched vulnerabilities to obtain initial access into their victims, we are now seeing how attackers are more commonly using new methods of compromising software supply chains, undermining trust in the patching process by inserting malicious code into legitimate products. Think about it this way: Each time your organization deploys and installs new software on desktop, mobile, and cloud platforms, you can be creating new "holes" in your cyber defenses, from which sensitive data can leak.
We have designed this course to address this gap. Throughout five sections filled up with case studies, techniques, instructor-led demos and over 20 hands-on labs in realistic lab settings (including a final end-to-end capstone exercise), we will provide you with the knowledge and skills required to "Think Red, Act Blue" and combat these supply chain attacks employing product security testing. Our goal as authors is to make this class as practical and valuable to you and your organization as possible. To fulfil this promise, all the exercises we have created can be repeated at your own pace, both during and after class, and are thoroughly documented to maximize your learning experience.
Armed with the knowledge and skills we teach you in this class, you will obtain deep technical understanding of how product security testing works and how it can help mitigate the risks that any organization faces when it comes to supply chain attacks.
- Douglas McKee and Ismael Valenzuela