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SEC617: Wireless Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking New

Thinking out-of-the-box is encouraged in SEC617, and the course has a lot of personal experiences shared by the instructor.

Matthias Frank, Bundeswehr

SEC617 has fantastic labs. The way they are written is great! The commentary peppered throughout the labs tell us what we are looking at and what we gain from it.

Margarita Baez, NCWDG

This course is designed for professionals seeking a comprehensive technical ability to understand, analyze, and defend the various wireless technologies that have become ubiquitous in our environments and, increasingly, key entrance points for attackers.

The authors of SEC617, as penetration testers themselves, know that many organizations overlook wireless security as an attack surface, and therefore fail to establish required defenses and monitoring, even though wireless technologies are now commonplace in executive suites, financial departments, government offices, manufacturing production lines, retail networks, medical devices, and air traffic control systems. Given the known risks of insecure wireless technologies and the attacks used against them, SEC617 was designed to help people build the vital skills needed to identify, evaluate, assess, and defend against these threats. These skills are 'must-have' for any high-performing security organization.

NOW COVERING WIFI, ZIGBEE, Z-WAVE, DECT, RFID, AND SOFTWARE -DEFINED RADIO

For many analysts, "wireless" was once synonymous with "WiFi," the ever-present networking technology, and many organizations deployed complex security systems to protect these networks. Today, wireless takes on a much broader meaning -- not only encompassing the security of WiFi systems, but also the security of Bluetooth, ZigBee, Z-Wave, DECT, RFID, NFC, contactless smart cards, and even proprietary wireless systems. To effectively evaluate the security of wireless systems, your skillset needs to expand to include many different types of wireless technologies.

EXPLORE WIFI ATTACKS AGAINST WINDOWS, MacOS, iOS, AND ANDROID

SEC617 will give you the skills you need to understand the security strengths and weaknesses of wireless systems. You will learn how to evaluate the ever-present cacophony of WiFi networks and identify the WiFi access points (APs) and client devices that threaten your organization. You will learn how to assess, attack, and exploit deficiencies in modern WiFi deployments using WPA2 technology, including sophisticated WPA2 Enterprise networks. You will gain a strong, practical understanding of the many weaknesses in WiFi protocols and how to apply that understanding to modern wireless systems. Along with identifying and attacking WiFi access points, you will learn to identify and exploit the behavioral differences in how client devices scan for, identify, and select APs, with deep insight into the behavior of the Windows 10, macOS, Apple iOS, and Android WiFi stacks.

EXAMINE BLE TECHNOLOGY WITH NEW INSIGHT, CERTIFYING DEVICES FOR USE

A significant portion of the course focuses on Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) attacks, targeting a variety of devices, including wireless keyboards, smart light bulbs, mobile devices, audio streaming devices, and more. You will learn to assess a target Bluetooth device, identify the present (or absent) security controls, and apply a solid checklist to certify a device's security for use within your organization.

LEARN TO ATTACK POPULAR WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY BEYOND WIFI TARGETS

Beyond analyzing WiFi and Bluetooth security threats, analysts must also understand many other wireless technologies that are widely utilized in complex systems. SEC617 provides insight and hands-on training to help analysts identify and assess the use of ZigBee and Z-Wave wireless systems used for automation, control, and smart home systems. The course also investigates the security of cordless telephony systems in the worldwide Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony (DECT) standard, including audio eavesdropping and recording attacks.

ATTACK AND MANIPULATE RFID AND NFC SYSTEMS

Radio frequency identification (RFID), near field communication (NFC), and contactless smart card systems are more popular than ever in countless applications such as point of sale systems and data center access control systems. You will learn how to assess and evaluate these deployments using hands-on exercises to exploit the same kinds of flaws discovered in mass transit smart card systems, hotel guest room access systems, and more.

GAIN NEW INSIGHT INTO WIRELESS PROTOCOLS WITH SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO

In addition to standards-based wireless systems, we also dig deeper into the radio spectrum using software-defined radio (SDR) systems to scour for signals. Using SDR, you will gain new insight into how widely pervasive wireless systems are deployed. With your skills in identifying, decoding, and evaluating the data these systems transmit, you will be able to spot vulnerabilities even in custom wireless infrastructures.

JUMPSTART YOUR TOOLKIT WITH SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE ASSESSMENT TOOLS SUPPLIED IN CLASS

SEC617 is a technical, hands-on penetration testing skill-development course that requires a wide variety of super-useful hardware and software tools to successfully build new skills. In this course, you will receive the SANS Wireless Assessment Toolkit (SWAT), which is a collection of hardware and software tools that will jumpstart your ability to assess wireless systems. The toolkit includes a high-powered 802.11a/b/g/n WiFi card, a long-range Bluetooth Classic/Low Energy adapter, a high-frequency RFID reader and writer, and a software-defined radio receiver. You will also receive a customized Linux software environment so you can work on assessing systems and avoid fighting hardware/software incompatibility.

Course Syllabus

Overview

The first section of the course quickly looks at wireless threats and attack surfaces and analyzes where you will likely see non-WiFi systems deployed in modern networks. We start off with a look at fundamental analysis techniques for evaluating WiFi networks, including the identification and analysis of rogue devices, and finish with a dive into remote penetration testing techniques using compromised Windows 10 and macOS devices to pivot.

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

Characterize the Wireless Threat

  • Recognizing protocol weaknesses and cryptographic failures across wireless technologies
  • Why popular smart phones increase our exposure to attack
  • Anatomy of a wireless attack: How real-world attackers exploit wireless systems
  • Introduction to the SWAT kit

Sniffing WiFi

  • Leveraging built-in functionality in every WiFi card for penetration testing
  • Wireless packet capture on Linux, Windows, and macOS
  • Overcoming physical-layer challenges in IEEE 802.11n, IEEE 802.11ac packet sniffers
  • Detecting cheaters: Radio regulatory domain bypass hacks
  • Packet capture, filter, and analysis with tcpdump, Wireshark, and Kismet
  • Tools and techniques for understanding your radio frequency exposure with topographic range maps

Rogue Access Point (AP) Analysis

  • Characterizing the threat and attacker motives for rogue APs
  • Wired-side analysis for rogue APs using open-source tools
  • Filtering out WiFi noise to focus on and characterize rogue device threats
  • Correlating WiFi devices with your network infrastructure
  • Effective unauthorized transmitter location analysis techniques
Overview

After developing skills needed to capture and evaluate WiFi activity, we start our look at exploiting WiFi, targeting AP and client devices. We cover techniques that apply to any WiFi products, from consumer to enterprise-class devices, focusing on understanding protocol-level deficiencies that will continue to be applied throughout the course on non-WiFi wireless systems as well.

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

Exploiting WiFi Hotspots

  • Bypassing authentication on hotspot networks
  • Exploiting mobile application data disclosure on open networks
  • Luring WiFi client victims with WiFi hotspot impersonation
  • Leveraging sidejacking attacks against hotspot networks

WiFi Client Attacks

  • Leveraging WiFi timing attacks for traffic manipulation
  • Bypassing client isolation security on WiFi networks
  • WiFi client privacy and isolation attacks through preferred network list disclosure
  • Leveraging commercial tools such as the WiFi Pineapple for AP impersonation
  • Integrating Metasploit Meterpreter payloads in WiFi network injection attacks

Exploiting WEP

  • A brief look at WEP technology and exploitation
  • Applying the cryptography in WEP to non-WiFi protocols

Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks

  • Identifying types of DoS attacks and attack targets
  • Leveraging RF jammers in a pen test
  • Selective client DoS targeting to manipulate network roaming events
  • Single-client to entire-network WiFi DoS techniques

WiFi Fuzzing for Bug Discovery

  • Introduction to fuzzing techniques
  • Identifying complex parsing issues in WiFi protocols
  • Using Scapy to build malformed packets
  • Identifying bugs in APs and client devices through fuzzing
  • Applying fuzzing as part of an overall WiFi security analysis
Overview

We finish our look at WiFi attack techniques with a detailed look at assessing and exploiting WPA2 networks. Starting with WPA2 consumer networks, we investigate the flaws associated with pre-shared key networks and WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) deployments, continuing with a look at exploiting WPA2 Enterprise networks using various Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) methods.

We continue to investigate the security of wireless networks on day 3, switching to non-WiFi analysis with a look at exploiting the worldwide Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony (DECT) standard to capture and export audio conversations from cordless headsets and phones. We also investigate the security of ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 networks, looking at cryptographic flaws, key management failures, and an introduction to hardware attacks.

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

Attacking WPA2 Pre-Shared Key Networks

  • In-depth analysis of key derivation functions in WPA2
  • Capturing and evaluating WPA2-PSK client network authentication exchanges
  • Attacking the passphrase selection of WPA2-PSK

Attacking WPA2 Enterprise Networks

  • Differentiating PSK-based WPA2 and WPA2 Enterprise networks
  • Leveraging identity disclosure in WPA2 Enterprise networks
  • Exploiting Windows 10 Native WiFi and PEAP networks
  • Exploiting iOS and Android Enterprise WiFi network roaming behavior
  • Using Hostapd-WPE for Enterprise network impersonation
  • Password recovery through MS-CHAPv2 cracking

Attacking Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony Deployments

  • DECT as a cordless telephony and data application technology
  • DECT physical and MAC layer fundamentals
  • Evaluating the DECT authentication and encryption mechanisms
  • Eavesdropping and recording audio conversations on DECT cordless phones

Attacking ZigBee Deployments

  • In-depth analysis of ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 physical and MAC layer architecture
  • ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 authentication and cryptographic controls
  • Weaknesses in ZigBee key provisioning and management mechanisms
  • Tools for eavesdropping on and manipulating ZigBee networks
  • Exploiting ZigBee Over-the-Air key provisioning
  • Locating ZigBee devices with signal analysis tools
Overview

Bluetooth technology is nearly as pervasive as WiFi, with widespread adoption in smart phones, fitness trackers, wireless keyboard, smart watches, and more. In this module, we dig into the Bluetooth Classic, Enhanced Data Rate, and Low Energy protocols, including tools and techniques to evaluate target devices for vulnerabilities.

Immediately following our look at Bluetooth technology, we jump into the practical application of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology to identify, decode, and assess proprietary wireless systems. We investigate the hardware and software available for SDR systems, and look at the tools and techniques to start exploring this exciting area of wireless security assessment.

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

Bluetooth Introduction and Attack Techniques

  • Understanding the physical layer evolution of Bluetooth and packet capture techniques
  • Bluetooth pairing techniques and vulnerabilities
  • Attacking Bluetooth pairing for PIN and key recovery
  • Techniques for identifying non-discoverable Bluetooth devices

Bluetooth Low Energy Introduction and Attack Techniques

  • Recognizing BLE Frequency-Hopping RF patterns
  • Security analysis of BLE pairing options -- just works, OOP, passkey, and numeric comparison
  • Analysis of expensive and inexpensive BLE packet capture tools for Windows, Linux, and Android devices
  • Scanning BLE device services with bluetoothctl, Android apps, and related tools
  • Practical exploitation of BLE services

Practical Application of Software-Defined Radio (SDR)

  • Guide to using SDR in a penetration test
  • RF spectrum visualization and signal hunting with SDR# and GQRX
  • Decoding ADS-B aircraft beacon traffic
  • Eavesdropping on POCSAG and FLEX pager messaging
  • GSM cell tower scanning and evaluation with SDR
  • Leveraging capture and replay attacks to exploit vehicle keyless entry systems
Overview

On day 5, we evaluate RFID technology in its multiple forms to identify the risks associated with privacy loss and tracking, while also building an understanding of both low-frequency and high-frequency RFID systems and NFC. We examine the security associated with contactless Point of Sale (PoS) terminals, including Apple Pay and Google Wallet, and proximity lock access systems from HID and other vendors. We also examine generalized techniques for attacking smart card systems, including critical data analysis skills needed to bypass the intended security of smart card systems used for mass transit systems, concert venues, bike rentals, and more.

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

RFID Overview

  • Understanding the components, transmission frequencies, and protocols in RFID systems
  • Differentiating active and passive RFID systems
  • Understanding NFC systems components and protocols
  • Practical range extensions in RFID attacks

RFID Tracking and Privacy Attacks

  • Practical location disclosure attacks in RFID systems
  • Case study: E-Z Pass location disclosure threats
  • Manipulating Apple iBeacon location tracking systems
  • RFID tracking through Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) tags

Low-Frequency RFID Attacks

  • Case study: cloning RFID tags used for bike rental systems
  • Leveraging RFIDiot for low-frequency RFID attacks
  • Attacking HID ProxCard proximity lock systems
  • Leveraging the ProxMark RDV 2 for low-frequency RFID attacks
  • Brute-forcing HID identifiers for unauthorized access
  • Extending range in HID cloning attacks
  • Manual low-frequency tag analysis and bitstream decoding

Exploiting Contactless RFID Smart Cards

  • Conducting smart card reconnaissance analysis with Linux and Android
  • Attacking Europay-Mastercard-Visa (EMV) PoS systems
  • Exploiting MIFARE Classic smart card systems
  • Effective smart card cloning with UID impersonation
  • Attacking MIFARE Ultralight, Ultralight-C, and DESFire smart card systems
  • Emulating smart cards with the ProxMark RDV2

Attacking NFC

  • Decoding the NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) protocol
  • Reading and writing NFC/NDEF tags
  • Analysis of Android Beam, Google Wallet, and Apple Pay NFC systems
  • Exploiting NFC smart toys
  • Attacking Android devices with malicious NFC tags
Overview

On the last day of class we will pull together all the concepts and technology we have covered during the week in a comprehensive Capture the Flag event. In this hands-on exercise, you will have the option to participate in multiple roles: identifying unauthorized/rogue WiFi access points, attacking live and recorded WiFi networks, decoding proprietary wireless signals, exploiting smart card deficiencies, and more.

During this wireless security event you will put into practice the skills you have learned in order to evaluate systems and defend against attackers, simulating the realistic environment you will be prepared to protect when you get back to the office.

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

Additional Information

IMPORTANT - BRING YOUR OWN LAPTOP WITH WINDOWS

To get the most value out of this course, students are required to bring their own laptop with a wireless card so that they can connect directly to the workshop wireless network we will create. It is the students' responsibility to make sure the system is properly configured with all drivers necessary to connect to the network.

Some of the course exercises are based on Windows, while others focus on Linux. VMware Workstation is required for the class. If you plan to use a Macintosh, please make sure you bring VMware Fusion, along with a Windows guest virtual machine.

Windows

You are required to bring Windows 10, 8 or 8.1 (Professional, Enterprise, or Ultimate), or Windows 7 (Professional, Enterprise, or Ultimate), either a real system or a virtual machine.

The course includes a VMware image file of a guest Linux system that is larger than 3 GB. Therefore, you need a file system with the ability to read and write files that are larger than 2 GB, such as NTFS on a Windows machine.

IMPORTANT NOTE: You will also be required to disable your anti-virus tools temporarily for some exercises, so make sure you have the anti-virus administrator permissions to do so. DO NOT plan on just killing your anti-virus service or processes, because most anti-virus tools still function, even when their associated services and processes have been terminated. For many enterprise-managed clients, disabling your anti-virus tool may require a different password than the Administrator account password. Please bring that administrator password for your anti-virus tool.

Enterprise VPN clients may interfere with the network configuration required to participate in the class. If your system has an enterprise VPN client installed, you may need to uninstall it for the exercises in class.

VMware

You will use VMware to run Windows and Linux operating systems simultaneously when performing exercises in class. You must have VMware Workstation 10 or later installed on your system prior to coming to class.

You can download a free 30-day trial copy of VMware Workstation here. VMware will send you a time-limited license number for VMware Workstation if you register for the trial on their website.

We will give you a USB full of attack tools to experiment with during the class and to take home for later analysis. We will also provide a Linux image with all of our tools pre-installed that runs within VMware Workstation.

Linux

You do not need to bring a Linux system if you plan to use our Linux image in VMware. However, you are required to bring VMware Workstation or VMware Fusion. The class does not support Virtual Box, VirtualPC, or other non-VMware virtualization products.

Mandatory Laptop Hardware Requirements:

  • 64-bit, 2.0 GHz CPU minimum or higher
  • 4 GB RAM minimum with 8 GB or higher recommended
  • 40 GB available hard-drive space
  • Integrated or external WiFi card for use in Windows
  • Any Service Pack level is acceptable for Windows 10, 8, Windows 7

During the workshop, you will be connecting to one of the most hostile networks on Earth! Your laptop might be attacked. Do not have any sensitive data stored on the system. SANS is not responsible for your system if someone in the class attacks it in the workshop.

By bringing the right equipment and preparing in advance, you can maximize what you will see and learn, as well as have a lot of fun.

If you have additional questions about the laptop specifications, please contact laptop_prep@sans.org.

  • Ethical hackers and penetration testers
  • Network security staff
  • Network and system administrators
  • Incident response teams
  • Information security policy decision-makers
  • Technical auditors
  • Information security consultants
  • Wireless system engineers
  • Embedded wireless system developers
  • Course books
  • Step-by-step instructions for all lab exercises
  • Handouts and cheatsheets used for quick reference to detailed information sources
  • Access to associated software, files, and analysis resources
  • MP3 audio files of the complete course lectures
  • ALFA AWUS051NHv2 WiFi a/b/g/n card
  • Parani SENA high-power Bluetooth Low Energy adapter
  • ACS ACR122U RFID/smart card reader/writer
  • RTL-SDR Software-Defined Radio Receiver with telescoping multi-frequency antenna
  • Powered USB hub for consistent power to greedy USB peripherals
  • Identify and locate malicious rogue access points using free and low-cost tools
  • Conduct a penetration test against low-power wireless devices to identify control system and related wireless vulnerabilities
  • Identify vulnerabilities and bypass authentication mechanisms in Bluetooth networks
  • Utilize wireless capture tools to extract audio conversations and network traffic from DECT wireless phones
  • Implement a WPA2 Enterprise penetration test to exploit vulnerable wireless client systems for credential harvesting
  • Utilize Scapy to force custom packets to manipulate wireless networks in new ways, quickly building custom attack tools to meet specific penetration test requirements
  • Identify WiFi attacks using network packet captures traces and freely available analysis tools
  • Identify and exploit shortcomings in the security of proximity key card systems
  • Decode proprietary radio signals using Software-Defined Radio
  • Mount a penetration test against numerous standards-based or proprietary wireless technologies

"SEC617 helps bridge the gap of knowledge between the specialized attackers and corporate administrators." - Robert Luettjohann, Overstock.com

"The labs were great and provided a good means to practice the material. An excellent course for all levels of professionals who are dealing with wireless in the organization." - John Fruge, B&W Technical Services

"This class will not only give you a basic understanding of wireless threats and vulnerabilities, but it can be as advanced as you want to make it with the questions that you ask." - Daniel Mayernik, Integrity Applications Incorporated

"The course offers an in-depth look at the how and why of wireless exploits. It gets you thinking again." - Todd Hick, BIMA

Author Statement

It has been amazing to watch the progression of wireless technology and the near ubiquitous adoption of it over the past several years. WiFi has grown in maturity and offers strong authentication and encryption options to protect networks. Yet many organizations continue to fail to implement these protections appropriately. We have also watched attacker sophistication grow with their toolsets, giving them the upper hand in exploiting technology we rely on for critical tasks. This pattern has us concerned. With implementation of wireless technology on the rise, the attack surface continues to grow as well.

It is not surprising that other wireless protocols have also emerged to satisfy the needs of lightweight embedded device connectivity (ZigBee, IEEE 802.15.4, and Z-Wave), specialty interference-resilient connectivity (Bluetooth Classic, Bluetooth Low Energy, and DECT), physical security and contactless payments (NFC and RFID), and many others using unknown standards-based and proprietary wireless technologies. It is no longer enough to just be a WiFi expert; you also need to be able to evaluate the entire wireless threat landscape across a whole host of technologies.

We are very excited to deliver even more hands-on labs and a suite of hardware tools to equip modern wireless security analysts with practical skills that they can bring back to their organization and apply on day one. The skills you will build in this class will be valuable for today's wireless technology, for tomorrow's technology advancements, and for other complex systems you have to evaluate in the future.

-- Larry Pesce and Josh Wright

Additional Resources

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*CPE/CMU credits not offered for the SelfStudy delivery method


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