HIPAA stands for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
From the HIPAA FAQ:
Passed in 1996, HIPAA is designed to protect confidential healthcare information through improved security standards and federal privacy legislation. It defines requirements for storing patient information before, during and after electronic transmission. It also identifies compliance guidelines for critical business tasks such as risk analysis, awareness training, audit trail, disaster recovery plans and information access control and encryption.
The three areas are: