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Glossary of Security Terms - B

Backdoor
A backdoor is a tool installed after a compromise to give an attacker easier access to the compromised system around any security mechanisms that are in place.
Bandwidth
Commonly used to mean the capacity of a communication channel to pass data through the channel in a given amount of time. Usually expressed in bits per second.
Banner
A banner is the information that is displayed to a remote user trying to connect to a service. This may include version information, system information, or a warning about authorized use.
Basic Authentication
Basic Authentication is the simplest web-based authentication scheme that works by sending the username and password with each request.
Bastion Host
A bastion host has been hardened in anticipation of vulnerabilities that have not been discovered yet.
BIND
BIND stands for Berkeley Internet Name Domain and is an implementation of DNS. DNS is used for domain name to IP address resolution.
Biometrics
Biometrics use physical characteristics of the users to determine access.
Bit
The smallest unit of information storage; a contraction of the term "binary digit;" one of two symbols—"0" (zero) and "1" (one) - that are used to represent binary numbers.
Block Cipher
A block cipher encrypts one block of data at a time.
Boot Record Infector
A boot record infector is a piece of malware that inserts malicious code into the boot sector of a disk.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
An inter-autonomous system routing protocol. BGP is used to exchange routing information for the Internet and is the protocol used between Internet service providers (ISP).
Botnet
A botnet is a large number of compromised computers that are used to create and send spam or viruses or flood a network with messages as a denial of service attack.
Bridge
A product that connects a local area network (LAN) to another local area network that uses the same protocol (for example, Ethernet or token ring).
British Standard 7799
A standard code of practice and provides guidance on how to secure an information system. It includes the management framework, objectives, and control requirements for information security management systems.
Broadcast
To simultaneously send the same message to multiple recipients. One host to all hosts on network.
Broadcast Address
An address used to broadcast a datagram to all hosts on a given network using UDP or ICMP protocol.
Browser
A client computer program that can retrieve and display information from servers on the World Wide Web.
Brute Force
A cryptanalysis technique or other kind of attack method involving an exhaustive procedure that tries all possibilities, one-by-one.
Buffer Overflow
A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary data storage area) than it was intended to hold. Since buffers are created to contain a finite amount of data, the extra information - which has to go somewhere - can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the valid data held in them.
Business Continuity Plan (BCP)
A Business Continuity Plan is the plan for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery steps that will ensure the availability of critical resources and facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency situation.
Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
A Business Impact Analysis determines what levels of impact to a system are tolerable.
Byte
A fundamental unit of computer storage; the smallest addressable unit in a computer's architecture. Usually holds one character of information and usually means eight bits.

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