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Featuring 30 Papers as of February 27, 2014
Repurposing Network Tools to Inspect File Systems
Andre Thibault - February 27, 2014
Digital forensics can be a laborious and multi-step process. Some of the initial steps in digital forensics include: Data Reduction, Anti-Virus checks, and an Indicator of Compromise (IOC) search.
Review of Windows 7 as a Malware Analysis Environment
Adam Kramer - January 14, 2014
The SANS course "FOR610: Reverse Engineering of Malware" is designed using Windows XP as the malware analysis environment (SANS Institute, 2013).
Live Response Using PowerShell
Sajeev Nair - August 20, 2013
Organizations today handle more sensitive personal data than ever before. As the amount of sensitive personal data increases, the more they are susceptible to security incidents and breaches (AICPA, n.d).
Dead Linux Machines Do Tell Tales
James Fung - May 15, 2013
A summary study of a compromised Linux network and the incident handling procedures that followed.
Joaquin Moreno - May 1, 2013
During the analysis of all the available data that are logged, organizations must be able to identify which portions of this information are actionable and pertinent.
Using IOC (Indicators of Compromise) in Malware Forensics
Hun-Ya Lock - April 22, 2013
In the IT operations of an enterprise, malware forensics is often used to support the investigations of incidents.
Indicators of Compromise in Memory Forensics
Chad Robertson - March 25, 2013
There has been a recent increase in the availability of intelligence related to malware.
Windows Logon Forensics
Sunil Gupta - March 15, 2013
Digital forensics, also known as computer and network forensics, is the application of science to the identification, collection, examination, and analysis of data while preserving the integrity of the information and maintaining a strict chain of custody for the data.
Forensic Analysis on iOS Devices Masters
Tim Proffitt - January 25, 2013
Technology in smart phones and tablets is advancing in a feverish pace.
A Regular Expression Search Primer for Forensic Analysts
Tim Cook - April 24, 2012
This paper introduces some of the powerful ASCII pattern identification and manipulation tools that are available to Forensic Analysts from the command line of the Linux Operating System of the SANS Investigative Forensic Toolkit (SIFT) Workstation.
iPhone Backup Files. A Penetration Tester's Treasure
Darren Manners - February 7, 2012
One of the noticeable changes in recent technology history is the emergence of the smart phone. Technological advances in these fields have created devices that have almost the equivalent power and functionality of desktop computers.
What's in a Name: Uncover the Meaning behind Windows Files and Processes
Larisa Long - February 7, 2012
When a system has been compromised, forensic analysts have to be part researcher and part investigator. They must be able to parse out known or healthy files to eliminate them as possible clues. Like the old saying goes: know what you don‟t know, but know where to find the answers.
Computer Forensic Timeline Analysis with Tapestry
Derek Edwards - November 29, 2011
One question commonly asked of investigators and incident responders is, "What happened?" The answer often takes the form of a story designed to convey understanding of complex mechanisms and interactions in a simple, straightforward way.
Identifying Malicious Code Infections Out of Network
Ken Dunham - August 29, 2011
Forensics is a complex subject, where details matter greatly. Even more complicated are investigations where forensic methods are used to further understand, identify, capture, and mature and understanding of a malicious attack that may have taken place on a computer.
Wireless Networks and the Windows Registry - Just where has your computer been? Masters
Jonathan Risto - May 6, 2011
The Windows Registry stores all of the information that is needed by the host operating system. This database contains all of the configurations, settings and options that are both created initially by the operating system, as well as user configuring settings and installed software.
Grow Your Own Forensic Tools: A Taxonomy of Python Libraries Helpful for Forensic Analysis Masters
T.J. OConnor - September 13, 2010
Forensics tools exist in abundance on the Web. Want to find a tool to dump the Windows SAM database out of volatile memory? Google and you will quickly find out that it exists. Want to mount and examine the contents of an iPhone backup? A tool exists to solve that problem as well. But what happens when a tool does not already exist? Anyone who has recently performed a forensic investigation knows that you are often left with a sense of frustration, knowing data existed only you had a tool that could access it.
Integrating Forensic Investigation Methodology into eDiscovery
Colin Chisholm - September 8, 2010
The intent of this paper is twofold; to provide a primer on the eDiscovery process for forensic analysts and to provide guidance on the application of forensic investigative methodology to said process. Even though security practitioners such as forensic analysts operate in the legal vertical, they necessarily view and approach eDiscovery from a different perspective than legal professionals. This paper proposes that both parties can benefit when they integrate their processes; forensic tools and techniques have been used in the collection, analysis and presentation of evidence in the legal system for years. The history, and precedent, of applying forensic science to the legal process can be leveraged into the eDiscovery process. This paper will also detail how the scope and work for a forensic investigator during the eDiscovery process differs from a typical forensic investigation.
Reverse Engineering the Microsoft exFAT File System
Robert Shullich - February 18, 2010
As Technology pushes the limits of removable media - so drives the need for a new file system in order to support the larger capacities and faster access speeds being designed. Microsoft's answer to this need is the new Extended FAT File System (exFAT) which has been made available on its newer operating systems and which will be supported on the new secure digital extended capacity (SDXC) storage media. This new file system is proprietary and requires licensing from Microsoft and little has been published about exFAT's internals. Yet in order to perform a full and proper digital forensics examination of the media, the file system layout and organization must be known. This paper takes a look under the hood of exFAT and demystifies the file system structure in order to be an aid in the performance of a digital investigation.
Remotely Accessing Sensitive Resources
Jason Ragland - February 18, 2010
Often travelers require access to digital resources to perform work from off-site locations such as conferences, hotels, and homes. These resources can include emails, research, medical, financial data, server management applications, or any number of other things that may have a very high need for confidentiality and integrity. The acceptable methods for access vary based on a variety of factors such as size, complexity, available types of network connectivity, and bandwidth. Access to email is often easily provided via a secure website and a password, for example. If the resource consists of gigabytes of research data, it isnt as simple.
Mac OS X Malware Analysis
Joel Yonts - September 8, 2009
As Apple's market share raises so will the Malware! Will incident responders be ready to address this rising threat? Leveraging the knowledge and experience from the mature windows based malware analysis environment, a roadmap will be built that will equip those already familiar with malware analysis to make the transition to the Mac OS X platform. Topics covered will include analysis of filesystem events, network traffic capture & analysis, live response tools, and examination of OS X constructs such as executable file structure and supporting configuration files.
Techniques and Tools for Recovering and Analyzing Data from Volatile Memory
Kristine Amari - March 26, 2009
There are many relatively new tools available that have been developed in order to recover and dissect the information that can be gleaned from volatile memory, but because this is a relatively new and fast-growing field many forensic analysts do not know or take advantage of these assets.
Data Carving Concepts
Antonio Merola - November 19, 2008
The idea behind this paper is to help people become familiar with data carving concepts and analysis techniques.
Mobile Device Forensics
Andrew Martin - September 5, 2008
This research paper will document in detail the methodology used to examine mobile electronic devices for the data critical to security investigations. The methodology encompasses the tools, techniques and procedures needed to gather data from a variety of common devices.
A Forensic Primer for Usenet Evidence
Mark Lachniet - June 25, 2008
This document is intended to provide an overview of the Usenet on the Internet, including the NNTP protocol and types of evidence of Usenet abuse that may be present on permanent storage devices such as hard disks and flash drives.
Ex-Tip: An Extensible Timeline Analysis Framework in Perl
Michael Cloppert - May 21, 2008
Digital forensic investigative needs extend well beyond the capabilities provided by classic timeline generation and analysis tools. In this paper, a simple, extensible, and portable timeline framework is discussed in detail. Dubbed Ex-Tip, it is shown that this tool can be used to provide basic timeline capabilities to any variety of input sources, with customizable output for human or programmatic consumption.
Taking advantage of Ext3 journaling file system in a forensic investigation
Gregorio Narvaez - December 11, 2007
The Ext3 file system has become the default for most Linux distributions and thus is of great importance for any practitioner of forensics to understand how Ext3 handles files differently from the previous standard (Ext2) and how the knowledge of these differences can be applied to recover evidence as deleted files, and file activity.
Forensic Analysis of a SQL Server 2005 Database Server
Kevvie Fowler - September 28, 2007
In-depth analysis of a forensic analysis of a SQL Server 2005 Database Server.
Forensic Analysis of a Compromised Intranet Server
Roberto Obialero - June 8, 2006
This document details the forensic analysis process of a compromised Intranet server, from the verification stage to the dissection of malware code, supported by an explanation of the followed methodology.
Becoming a Forensic Investigator
Mark Maher - August 15, 2004
One of the forensic analyst's primary functions is the dissemination of the forensic process to the intended audience. To do their jobs successfully, they must write forensic reports that are both technically accurate and easy to read.
A Case for Forensics Tools in Cross-Domain Data Transfers
Dwane Knott - October 31, 2003
Corporate and government organizations dependence on computers and networks for storage and movement of data raises significant security issues. This paper presents three options, the most practical is more fully discussed.
Most of the computer security white papers in the Reading Room have been written by students seeking GIAC certification to fulfill part of their certification requirements and are provided by SANS as a resource to benefit the security community at large. SANS attempts to ensure the accuracy of information, but papers are published "as is". Errors or inconsistencies may exist or may be introduced over time as material becomes dated. If you suspect a serious error, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
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