FOR508: Advanced Digital Forensics and Incident Response
I routinely perform live memory captures and have gone through them looking for the obvious, but I had no idea, until FOR508, how many artifacts are contained in RAM.
M Scott Saul, FBI
FOR508 combined with FOR572 shows a complete picture from disk side to network side.
Dow Shirley, Energy Solutions
FOR508: Advanced Digital Forensics and Incident Response will help you determine:
- How the breach occurred
- Compromised and affected systems
- What attackers took or changed
- Incident containment and remediation
THE ADVANCED PERSISTENT THREAT IS IN YOUR NETWORK - TIME TO GO HUNTING!
DAY 0: A 3-letter government agency contacts you to say critical information was stolen through a targeted attack on your organization. They won't tell how they know, but they identify several breached systems within your enterprise. An Advanced Persistent Threat adversary, aka an APT, is likely involved - the most sophisticated threat you are likely to face in your efforts to defend your systems and data.
Over 80% of all breach victims learn of a compromise from third-party notifications, not from internal security teams. In most cases, adversaries have been rummaging through your network undetected for months or even years.
Incident response tactics and procedures have evolved rapidly over the past several years. Data breaches and intrusions are growing more complex. Adversaries are no longer compromising one or two systems in your enterprise; they are compromising hundreds. Your team can no longer afford antiquated incident response techniques that fail to properly identify compromised systems, provide ineffective containment of the breach, and ultimately fail to rapidly remediate the incident.
This in-depth incident response course provides responders with advanced skills to hunt down, counter, and recover from a wide range of threats within enterprise networks, including APT adversaries, organized crime syndicates, and hactivism. Constantly updated, the incident response course (FOR508) addresses today's incidents by providing hands-on incident response tactics and techniques that elite responders are successfully using in real-world breach cases.
A hands-on enterprise intrusion lab - developed from a real-world targeted APT attack on an enterprise network and based on how an APT group will target your network - leads you through the challenges and solutions via extensive use of the SANS SIFT Workstation collection of tools.
During the intrusion lab exercises, you will identify where the initial targeted attack occurred and lateral movement through multiple compromised systems. You will extract and create crucial cyber threat intelligence that can help you properly scope the compromise and detect future breaches.
During a targeted attack, an organization needs the best incident response team in the field. FOR508: Advanced Digital Forensics and Incident Response will train you and your team to respond, detect, scope, and stop intrusions and data breaches.
GATHER YOUR INCIDENT RESPONSE TEAM - IT'S TIME TO GO HUNTING
FOR508 INCIDENT RESPONSE TRAINING WILL PREPARE YOUR TEAM TO:
- Learn and master the tools, techniques, and procedures necessary in order to effectively detect, contain, and remediate against a variety of adversaries.
- Detect unknown live, dormant, and custom malware in memory across multiple Windows systems in an enterprise environment.
- Respond to hundreds of unique systems simultaneously using F-Response Enterprise and the SANS SIFT Workstation.
- Identify malware beaconing outbound to its command and control (C2) channel via memory forensics, registry analysis, and network connection residue.
- Determine how the breach occurred by identifying the beachhead and spear phishing attack mechanisms.
- Target anti-forensics techniques like hidden and time-stomped malware, along with utility-ware used to move in the network and maintain the attacker's presence.
- Use memory analysis and incident response tools in the SIFT Workstation to detect hidden processes, malware, attacker command lines, rootkits, network connections, and more.
- Track user and attacker activity second-by-second on the system you are analyzing through in-depth timeline and super-timeline analysis.
- Recover data cleared using anti-forensics techniques via Volume Shadow Copy and Restore Point analysis.
- Learn how file systems work and discover powerful forensics artifacts like NTFS $I30 indexes, journal parsing, and detailed Master File Table analysis.
- Identify lateral movement and pivots within your enterprise, showing how attackers transition from system to system without detection.
- Understand how the attacker can acquire legitimate credentials, including domain administrator rights - even in a locked-down environment.
- Track data movement as the attackers collect critical data and shift it to exfiltration collection points.
- Recover and analyze proprietary archive form .rar files used by APT-like attackers to exfiltrate sensitive data from the enterprise network.
- Use collected data to perform effective remediation across the entire enterprise.
- Advanced use of a wide range of best-of-breed open-source tools in the SANS SIFT Workstation to perform incident response and digital forensics.
- Responding to advanced adversaries such as nation-state actors, organized crime, and hacktivists.
- Rapid incident response analysis and breach assessment.
- Incident response and intrusion forensics methodology.
- Remote and enterprise incident response system analysis.
- Windows live incident response.
- Memory analysis during incident response.
- Timeline analysis.
- System restore points and volume shadow copy exploitation.
- In-depth windows NTFS file system examination to detect APT groups and advanced insider threats.
- Detection of anti-forensics and adversary hiding techniques.
- Discovery of unknown malware on a system.
- Adversary threat intelligence development, indicators of compromise, and usage.
- Cyber-kill chain strategies.
- Step-by-step tactics and procedures to respond to and investigate intrusion cases.
|FOR508.1: Enterprise Incident Response||Rob Lee||
Mon Nov 17th, 2014
9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Incident responders should be armed with the latest tools, memory analysis techniques, and enterprise incident response methodologies in order to identify, track, and contain advanced adversaries and remediate incidents. Incident response and forensic analysts must be able to scale their response across thousands of systems in their enterprise. Enterprise scanning techniques are now a requirement to track targeted attacks by an APT group or organized crime syndicates that can rapidly propagate through hundreds of systems. Responding to this many systems cannot be accomplished using the standard "pull the hard drive" forensic examination methodology. Such an approach will alert the adversaries that you are aware and may allow them to quickly adapt and exfiltrate sensitive information in response. This section examines the six-step incident response methodology as it applies to an enterprise's response during a targeted attack. We will show the importance of developing security intelligence in affecting the adversaries "kill chain." We will also demonstrate live response techniques and tactics that can be applied on a single system and across the entire enterprise.
Students will receive a full six-month license of F-Response Enterprise Edition, enabling each student to use his or her own workstation or the SIFT workstation to connect to hundreds or thousands of systems in the enterprise. This capability is used to benchmark, facilitate, and demonstrate new incident response technologies that enable a responder to look for indicators of compromise across the entire enterprise.
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
Real Incident Response Tactics
Threat and Adversary Intelligence
Remote and Enterprise Incident Response
Windows Live Incident Response
|FOR508.2: Memory Forensics in Incident Response||Rob Lee||
Tue Nov 18th, 2014
9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Now a critical component of many incident response teams that detect advanced threats in their organization, memory forensics has come a long way in just a few years. It can be extraordinarily effective at finding evidence of worms, rootkits, and advanced malware used by an APT group of attackers. Memory analysis traditionally was solely the domain of Windows internals experts, but the recent development of new tools makes it accessible today to anyone especially incident responders. Better interfaces, documentation, and built-in detection heuristics have greatly leveled the playing field. This section will introduce some of the newest free tools available and give you a solid foundation in adding core and advanced memory forensic skills to your incident response and forensics capabilities.
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
Memory Forensics Analysis Process
Memory Forensics Examinations
Memory Analysis Tools
|FOR508.3: Timeline Analysis||Rob Lee||
Wed Nov 19th, 2014
9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Timeline analysis will change the way you approach digital forensics and incident response. . . forever.
Learn advanced incident response techniques uncovered via timeline analysis directly from the developers who pioneered timeline analysis tradecraft. Temporal data is located everywhere on a computer system. File system modified/access/creation/change times, log files, network data, registry data, and Internet history files all contain time data that can be correlated into critical analysis to successfully solve cases. Pioneered by Rob Lee in 2001, timeline analysis has become a critical incident response and forensics technique to solve complex cases. New timeline analysis frameworks provide the means to conduct simultaneous examinations of a multitude of time-based artifacts. Analysis that once took days now takes minutes.
This section will step you through the two primary methods of building and analyzing timelines created during advanced incident response and forensic cases. Exercises will not only show analysts how to create a timeline, they will also introduce key methods to help you use those timelines effectively in your cases.
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
Timeline Analysis Overview
Memory Analysis Timeline Creation
Filesystem Timeline Creation and Analysis
Super Timeline Creation and Analysis
|FOR508.4: Deep Dive Forensics And Anti-Forensics Detection||Rob Lee||
Thu Nov 20th, 2014
9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
In digital forensics, many tools simply require a few mouse clicks to automatically recover data. However, this "push button" mentality has led to many inaccurate results in the past few years. It is also very difficult to identify a skilled attacker solely using antiquated and slow commercial toolsets. This section will free you from relying on "push button" forensic techniques by showing you how the engines of digital forensic tools really work. To understand how to carve out data, it is best to understand how to do it by hand and then show how automated tools should be able to recover the same data. You will learn how to perform string searches looking for specific residue from a file, as well as multiple ways to recover the file data across the layers of the file system. If a file or registry key has been wiped or deleted, this section shows how to use Windows historical artifacts to recover key pieces of the data even if they no longer exist on the system. This knowledge will allow you see beyond most anti-forensic techniques, enabling you to gain the advantage while responding to breaches in your organization and to investigate more advanced subjects actively attempting to hide from you.
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
Advanced "Evidence of Execution" Artifacts
Windows 7/8 Server 2008/2012 Shadow Volume Copy Analysis
Deep Dive Malware and Anti-Forensic Detection
Anti-Forensic Detection Methodologies
|FOR508.5: Adversary and Malware Hunting||Rob Lee||
Fri Nov 21st, 2014
9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
The adversaries are good. We must be better.
Over the years, we have observed that many incident responders have a challenging time finding malware without pre-built indicators of compromise or threat intelligence gathered prior to a breach. This is especially true in APT group intrusions. This advanced session will demonstrate techniques used by first responders to identify malware or forensic artifacts when very little information exists about their capabilities or hidden locations. We will discuss techniques to help funnel possibilities down to the candidates most likely to be evil malware trying to hide on the system.
The section concludes with a step-by-step approach to handling some of the most difficult types of investigations. You will learn the best ways to approach intrusion and spear phishing attacks. You will know the locations you can examine to determine if file wiping occurred. Regardless of the actions hackers might take, they will always leave something that can be traced. This section will consolidate your new skills into a working attack plan to solve these difficult cases.
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
Adversary and Malware Hunting
Methodology to Analyze and Solve Challenging Cases
|FOR508.6: The APT Incident Response Challenge||Rob Lee||
Sat Nov 22nd, 2014
9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
This incredibly rich and realistic enterprise intrusion exercise is based on a real-world advanced persistent threat (APT) group. It brings together techniques learned earlier in the week and tests your newly acquired skills in a case that simulates an attack by an advanced adversary. The challenge brings it all together using a real intrusion into a complete Windows enterprise environment. You will be asked to uncover how the systems were compromised in the initial intrusion, find other systems the adversary moved to laterally, and identify intellectual property stolen via data exfiltration. You will walk out of the course with hands-on experience investigating realistic attacks, curated by a cadre of instructors with decades of experience fighting advanced threats from attackers ranging from nation-states to financial crime syndicates and hactivist groups.
CPE/CMU Credits: 6
IDENTIFICATION AND SCOPING:
1. How and when did the APT group breach our network?
2. List all compromised systems by IP address and specific evidence of compromise.
3. When and how did the attackers first laterally move to each system?
CONTAINMENT AND SECURITY INTELLIGENCE GATHERING:
4. How and when did the attackers obtain domain administrator credentials?
5. Once on other systems, what did the attackers look for on each system?
6. Find extracted email from executive accounts and perform damage assessment.
7. Determine what was stolen: Recover any .rar files or other archives exfiltrated, find encoding passwords, and extract the contents to verify extracted data.
8. Collect and list all malware used in the attack.
9. Develop and present security intelligence or an indicator of compromise (IOC) for the APT-group "beacon" malware for both host- and network-based enterprise scoping. What specific indicators exist for the use of this malware?
REMEDIATION AND RECOVERY
10. Do we need to change the passwords for every user in domain or just the ones affected by the systems compromised?
11. Based on the attacker techniques and tools discovered during incident, what are the recommended steps to remediate and recover from this incident?
a. What systems need to be rebuilt?
b. What IP addresses need to be blocked?
c. What countermeasures should we deploy to slow or stop these attackers if they come back?
d. What recommendations would you make in order to detect these intruders in our network again?
!!IMPORTANT - BRING YOUR OWN SYSTEM CONFIGURED USING THESE DIRECTIONS!!
You can use any 64-bit version of Windows, Mac OSX, or Linux as your core operating system that also can install and run VMware virtualization products. For Macs, we recommend setting up Boot Camp and running Windows directly on your Mac. We have had challenges with VMware Fusion products with several exercises in class.
It is critical that your CPU and operating system support 64-bit so that our 64-bit guest virtual machine will run on your laptop. VMware provides a free tool for Windows and Linux that will detect whether or not your host supports 64-bit guest virtual machines. For further troubleshooting, this article also provides good instructions for Windows users to determine more about the CPU and OS capabilities.
Please download and install VMware Workstation 11, VMware Fusion 7, or VMware Player 7 or higher versions on your system prior to class beginning. If you do not own a licensed copy of VMware Workstation or Fusion, you can download a free 30-day trial copy from VMware. VMware will send you a time-limited serial number if you register for the trial at their website. VMware Player is a free download that does not need a commercial license. Most students find VMware Player adequate for the course.
MANDATORY FOR508 SYSTEM SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS (Please install the following prior to the beginning of the class):
OPTIONAL ITEMS TO BRING TO CLASS
If you have additional questions about the laptop specifications, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
|Who Should Attend|
FOR508 is an Advanced Incident Response course focusing on detecting and responding to advanced persistent threats and organized crime threat groups. We do not cover the basics of incident response, windows digital forensics, or hacker techniques in the course.
|HANDS-ON APT Enterprise Intrusion Lab|
One of the biggest complaints you hear in the digital forensics and incident response community is the lack of realistic intrusion data. Most real-world intrusion data are simply too sensitive to be shared.
Starting over a year ago, the FOR508 course authors created a realistic scenario based on experiences surveyed from a panel of responders who regularly respond to targeted APT attacks. They helped review and guide the targeted attack "script" used to create the scenario. As a result, the authors created an incredibly rich and realistic attack scenario across multiple enterprise systems. This APT attack lab forms the basis for training during the week. The network was set up to mimic a standard "protected" enterprise network using standard compliance checklists:
This exercise and challenge will be used to show real adversary traces across host systems, system memory, hibernation/pagefiles and more.
In the end, we will have created authentic memory captures on each box, network captures, malware samples, in addition to full disk images w/Restore Points (XP) and VSS for (Win7 and Win2008) systems
|Why Take This Course?|
What you Will Learn
|What You Will Receive|
|You Will Be Able To|
|Press & Reviews|
"THE SANS508 COURSE EXCEEDED MY EXPECTATIONS IN EVERY WAY. IT PROVIDED ME THE SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE, AND TOOLS TO EFFECTIVELY RESPOND TO AND HANDLE APTS AND OTHER ENTERPRISE WIDE THREATS." -Josh Moulin NSTEC/NNSA/DOE
"THE EXAMPLES IN THE COURSE RELATE TO WHAT I NEED TO KNOW TO DEAL WITH REAL WORLD THREATS." -Tim Weaver, Digital Mtn. Inc.
"I WAS SURPRISED AND AMAZED AT HOW EASY IT IS TO DO MEMORY ANALYSIS AND HOW HELPFUL IT IS." - Brian Dugay, Apple
"THE LEVEL OF DETAIL IS AMAZING. THE METHODOLOGY IS CLEARLY EFFECTIVE AT FINDING PERTINENT ARTIFACTS." - no name
"I'VE TAKEN OTHER NETWORK INTRUSION CLASSES BUT NOTHING THIS IN-DEPTH. THE CLASS IS OUTSTANDING!" -- Craig Goldsmith, FBI
"CUTTING EDGE EXPERTISE TAUGHT BY WORLD CLASS EXPERTS." -Joseph Murray, Deloitte
"I AM A DIFFERENT MAN AS A RESULT OF THIS COURSE." - Travis Farral, XTO Energy
"ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE IS USEFUL, BUT THIS COURSE PROVIDES THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF A GROWING TREND." -Erik Musick, Arkansas State Police
"THIS IS A GREAT CLASS AND SHOULD BE MANDATORY FOR ANYONE IN THE FORENSIC FIELD. GREAT JOB, ROB!" -Mark Merchant, State of Alaska/State Security Office
"COME PREPARED TO LEARN A LOT." -Todd Black Lee, The Golden 1 Credit Union
"YOU CAN DELETE IT, HIDE IT, RENAME IT, BUT WE WILL FIND IT." -Edward Fuller, Department of Defense
"GREAT COURSE! THIS NOT ONLY HELPS ME IN FORENSICS BUT ALSO IN CREATING USE-CASES FOR OUR OTHER INTRUSION ANALYSIS TOOLS." -Joseph Murray, Deloitte
"IT IS HARD TO REALLY SAY SOMETHING THAT WILL PROPERLY CONVEY THE AMOUNT OF MENTAL GROWTH I HAVE EXPERIENCED THIS WEEK." -Travis Farral, XTI Energy
"EXCELLENT COURSE, INVALUABLE HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE TAUGHT BY PEOPLE WHO NOT ONLY KNOW THE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES, BUT KNOW THEIR QUIRKINESS THROUGH PRACTICAL, REAL-WORLD EXPERIENCE." -John Alexander, US Army
"THIS COURSE (FOR508) REALLY TAKES YOU FROM 0-60 IN UNDERSTANDING THE CORE CONCEPTS OF FORENSICS, ESPECIALLY THE FILE SYSTEM." -Matthew Harvey, U.S. Department of Justice
"IF YOU NEED TO TRACK DOWN WHAT HAPPENED IN YOUR ENVIRONMENTS, THIS IS A MUST HAVE COURSE!" -Fran Moniz, American National Insurance
"THE CAPSTONE EXERCISE IS AWESOME, PUTS TRACKING THE APT INTO PRACTICE." -Gavin Worden, SD-LECC
"BEST FORENSICS TRAINING I'VE HAD SO FAR. I THOUGHT THE SOME OTHERS COURSES WERE GREAT BUT 508 IS A LOT MORE CURRENT AND APPLICABLE TO THE REAL WORLD! EXCELLENT COURSE AND INSTRUCTOR OVERALL!" -Marc Bleicher, Bit9
"THE MORE I PROGRESS THROUGH THE COURSE, THE MORE I REALIZE JUST HOW MUCH CAPACITY THERE IS TO PRODUCE ANSWERS TO TOUGH QUESTIONS. WHERE I MIGHT NOT HAVE FOUND SUPPORTING EVIDENCE IN PAST CASES, I FEEL I HAVE SO MANY NEW AVENUES TO EXPLORE. A REAL EYE-OPENER. I ALSO GREATLY APPRECIATE THE FOCUS ON INCIDENT RESPONSE." - Dave Ockwell-Jenner, SITA
"I HAVE ALREADY USED SEVERAL OF THE TOOLS/TECHNIQUES FROM THE COURSE WITH PAST-CASE EVIDENCE TO UNCOVER THINGS I DID NOT PREVIOUSLY KNOW." - Dave Ockwell-Jenner, SITA
"MY SOC FOCUSES A LOT ON INCIDENT RESPONSE AND QUICK FORENSICS, SO THE COURSE MATERIAL IS EXTREMELY VALUABLE." - Anonymous
"I ROUTINELY PERFORM LIVE MEMORY CAPTURES AND HAVE GONE THROUGH THEM LOOKING FOR THE OBVIOUS, BUT I HAD NO IDEA, UNTIL FOR508, HOW MANY ARTIFACTS ARE CONTAINED IN RAM." - M Scott Saul, FBI
"THE SANS INSTITUTE IS CURRENTLY THE LEADER IN THE COMMERCIAL IR AND COMPUTER FORENSIC TRAINING MARKET. THEY HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF QUALITY COURSES." - Luttgens, Jason; Pepe, Matthew; Mandia, Kevin. Incident Response & Computer Forensics, Third Edition - July 2014
"YOU HAVE THE CONTENT WHICH IS CLOSE TO REAL WTHEN YOU HAVE THE INSTRUCTOR THAT GOES INTO A LOT OF REAL WORLD EXAMPLES. JUST GREAT." -Anonymous
"FOR508 COMBINED WITH FOR572 SHOWS A COMPLETE PICTURE FROM DISK SIDE TO NETWORK SIDE." - Dow Shirley, Energy Solutions
"MOST IN-DEPTH, STATE OF THE ART IR COURSE I CAN IMAGINE. FIRST TIME I THINK DEFENSE CAN ACTUALLY GAIN AN ADVANTAGE. THANK YOU." - Kai Thomsen, AUDI AG
FULL REVIEW AND WRITE UP OF FOR508 BY DAVID NIDES, KPMG-
PRESS ARTICLES ABOUT THE NEW FOR508 COURSE:
Should I take SANS 408 or 508? (part 1) - http://digitalforensicstips.com/category/training_reviews/
SANS 508 Compared to 408 Part Two (part 2) - http://digitalforensicstips.com/2013/04/sans-508-compared-to-408-part-two-plus-a-side-of-610/