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FOR518: Mac Forensic Analysis

Digital forensic investigators have traditionally dealt with Windows machines, but what if they find themselves in front of a new Apple Mac or iDevice? The increasing popularity of Apple devices can be seen everywhere, from coffee shops to corporate boardrooms, yet most investigators are familiar with Windows-only machines.

Times and trends change and forensic investigators and analysts need to change with them. The new FOR518: Mac Forensic Analysis course provides the tools and techniques necessary to take on any Mac case without hesitation. The intense hands-on forensic analysis skills taught in the course will enable Windows-based investigators to broaden their analysis capabilities and have the confidence and knowledge to comfortably analyze any Mac or iOS system.

Forensicate Differently!

The FOR518: Mac Forensic Analysis Course will teach you:

  1. Mac Fundamentals: How to analyze and parse the Hierarchical File System (HFS+) file system by hand and recognize the specific domains of the logical file system and Mac-specific file types.
  2. User Activity: How to understand and profile users through their data files and preference configurations.
  3. Advanced Analysis and Correlation: How to determine how a system has been used or compromised by using the system and user data files in correlation with system log files.
  4. Mac Technologies: How to understand and analyze many Mac-specific technologies, including Time Machine, Spotlight, iCloud, Versions, FileVault, AirDrop, and FaceTime.

FOR518: Mac Forensic Analysis aims to form a well-rounded investigator by introducing Mac forensics into a Windows-based forensics world. This course focuses on topics such as the HFS+ file system, Mac specific data files, tracking user activity, system configuration, analysis and correlation of Mac logs, Mac applications, and Mac exclusive technologies. A computer forensic analyst who successfully completes the course will have the skills needed to take on a Mac forensics case.

FOR518 Will Prepare You To:

  • Parse the HFS+ file system by hand, using only a cheat sheet and a hex editor.
  • Determine the importance of each file system domain.
  • Conduct temporal analysis of a system by correlating data files and log analysis.
  • Profile an individual's usage of the system, including how often they used the system, what applications they frequented, and their personal system preferences.
  • Determine remote or local data backups, disk images, or other attached devices.
  • Find encrypted containers and FileVault volumes, understand keychain data, and crack Mac passwords.
  • Analyze and understand Mac metadata and their importance in the Spotlight database, Time Machine, and Extended Attributes.
  • Develop a thorough knowledge of the Safari Web Browser and Apple Mail applications.
  • Identify communication with other users and systems though iChat, Messages, FaceTime, Remote Login, Screen Sharing, and AirDrop.
  • Conduct an intrusion analysis of a Mac for signs of compromise or malware infection.
  • Acquire and analyze memory from Mac systems.
  • Acquire iOS and analyze devices in-depth.

Course Topics

  • In-Depth HFS+ File System Examination
  • File System Timeline Analysis
  • Advanced Computer Forensics Methodology
  • Mac-Specific Acquisition and Incident Response Collection
  • Mac Memory Acquisition and Analysis
  • File System Data Analysis
  • Metadata Analysis
  • Recovery of Key Mac Files
  • Volume and Disk Image Analysis
  • Analysis of Mac Technologies, including Time Machine, Spotlight, and FileVault
  • Advanced Log Analysis and Correlation
  • iDevice Analysis and iOS Artifacts

Course Syllabus
Course Contents
  FOR518.1: Mac Essentials and the HFS+ File System
Overview

This section introduces the student to Mac system fundamentals such as acquisition, the Hierarchical File System (HFS+), timestamps, and logical file system structure. Acquisition fundamentals are the same with Mac systems, but there are a few Mac-specific tips and tricks that can be used to successfully and easily collect Mac systems for analysis. The building blocks of Mac Forensics start with a thorough understanding of the HFS+. Utilizing a hex editor, the student will learn the basic principles of the primary file system implemented on Mac OS X systems. Students comfortable with Windows forensic analysis can easily learn the slight differences on a Mac system: the data are the same, only the format differs.

Exercises
  • Exercise Setup
  • Mac Incident Response
  • Disks and Partitions
  • HFS+

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

Mac Fundamentals

  • History
  • Mac Systems & Versions
  • Mac Analysis in a Windows World

Mac Acquisition

  • Acquisition Types
  • Acquisition Tools
  • Tips & Tricks

Incident Response

  • Gathering Volatile Data
  • Mac IR Tools and Commands

HFS+ File System

  • Disk & Volumes
  • Partition Schemes
  • Boot Camp
  • FileVault
  • Volume Header
  • B-Trees
  • Catalog File
  • Extents Overflow File
  • Allocation File
  • Attributes File
  • Startup File
  • Link Files
  • Journal

Volumes

  • Disk Images (DMGs)
  • Sparse Bundles & Sparse Disk Images
  • FileVault

Mac Basics

  • Timestamp Formats
  • OS X File System Domains
    • User Domain
    • Local Domain
    • System Domain
    • Network Domain
  • SQLite Databases
  • Property List Files

 
  FOR518.2: User Domain File Analysis
Overview

The logical Mac file system is made up of four domains; User, Local, System, and Network. The User Domain contains most of the user-related items of forensic interest. This domain consists of user preferences and configurations, e-mail, Internet history, and user-specific application data. This section contains a wide array of information that can be used to profile and understand how individuals use their computers.

Exercises
  • User Account Data and Preferences
  • Safari
  • Apple Mail
  • Mac Applications

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

User Home Directory

  • Preferences
  • Caches
  • Sandbox Containers

User Account Information

  • Last Logon
  • Account Data
  • Password Shadow
  • Keychains
  • User Autoruns

User Data Analysis

  • Bash History
  • Downloads
  • File Quarantine
  • Recent Files, Folders, Servers, Applications
  • SSH Known Hosts
  • Printing
  • Trash
  • Saved Application State
  • OS X GUI Preferences
  • User Logs
  • Bluetooth

Internet & E-mail

  • Safari
    • Preferences
    • Downloads
    • Internet History
    • Cache
    • Last State
    • Cookies
  • Apple Mail
    • E-mail Accounts
    • Messages
    • Attachments

Instant Messaging

  • iChat, Messages, & FaceTime
  • IM Preferences
  • Recent Chats
  • Chat Logs
  • File Transfers

Native Mac Applications

  • iCal and Calendar
  • Address Book & Contacts
  • iTunes
  • iPhoto
  • iWork: Numbers, Keynote, and Pages
  • Stickies
  • Spotlight
  • AirDrop
  • Screen Sharing
  • Microsoft Office

 
  FOR518.3: System and Local Domain File Analysis
Overview

The System and Local Domains contain system-specific information such as application installation, system settings and preferences, and system logs. This sections details basic system information, GUI preferences, and system application data. A basic analysis of system logs can give a good understanding of how a system was used . . . or abused.

Timeline analysis tells the story of how the system was used. Each entry in a log file has a specific meaning and may be able to tell how the user interacted with the computer. The log entries can be correlated with other data found on the system to create an in-depth timeline that can be used to solve cases quickly and efficiently. Analysis tools and techniques will be used to correlate the data and help the student put the story back together in a coherent and meaningful way.

Exercises
  • System Data and Preferences
  • Log Analysis
  • Timeline Analysis and Data Correlation

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

System Information

  • System Version
  • System Installation
  • Time Zone Settings
  • Network Information
  • Deleted User Accounts

System Applications

  • Application Bundles
  • Mach-O Executables
  • System Autoruns
  • Firewall Settings
  • Screen Sharing
  • Remote Management
  • File Sharing
  • Remote Login
  • Printing
  • Bluetooth
  • Software Update
  • Kernel Extensions

Log Analysis

  • Log Locations
  • Log Analysis Tools
  • Log Recovery
  • Apple System Logs
  • BSM Audit Logs
  • Secure.log
  • System.log
  • Kernel.log
  • Other System Logs

Timeline Analysis & Correlation

  • Temporal Context
  • Network Analysis
  • User Logins/Logouts
  • Temporal Modifications
  • Software Updates
  • User Activity
  • Volume Activity
  • Suspicious Activity
  • System Information & State
  • Backup Activity
  • Locational Information

 
  FOR518.4: Advanced Analysis Topics
Overview

Mac systems implement some technologies that are available only to those with Mac devices. These include data backup with Time Machine, Versions, and iCloud; extensive file metadata with Extended Attributes and Spotlight; and disk encryption with FileVault. Other advanced topics include data hidden in encrypted containers, Mac intrusion and malware analysis, Mac Server, and Mac memory analysis.

Exercises
  • Time Machine & Spotlight Analysis
  • Password Cracking & Encrypted Containers
  • iCloud & Document Versions
  • Memory Analysis

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

Extended Attributes

  • Extracting and Viewing Extended Attributes
  • File System Events Store Database

Time Machine

  • Backup Settings
  • Backup Volumes
  • Snapshot Analysis
  • Local Snapshots
  • Encrypted Backups
  • Mounting & Analysis

Spotlight

  • Spotlight Settings
  • Spotlight Analysis

Cracking Passwords & Encrypted Containers

  • Password Shadow Files
  • Cracking Software
  • Keychains
  • FileVault
  • Encrypted Volumes & Disk Images

iCloud

  • Synced Accounts
  • Mobile Documents
  • Synced Preferences
  • Logs
  • Photo Stream

Document Versions

  • Versions Metadata
  • Versions Database
  • Generations Files
  • ChunkStorage Storage Format

Malware & Antivirus

  • Intrusion Analysis
  • Java Cache & IDX Files
  • File Quarantine
  • XProtect
  • Gatekeeper

Memory Acquisition & Analysis

  • Acquisition Tools
  • Analysis Tools

Portable OS X Artifacts

  • FAT Formatted Drives
  • DS_store Files

Mac OS X Server

  • Server Settings
  • Server Data
  • File Shares
  • Server Logs

 
  FOR518.5: iOS Forensics
Overview

From iPods to iPhones to iPads, it seems everyone has at least one of these devices. Apple iDevices are seen in the hands of millions of people. Much of what goes on in our lives is often stored on them. Forensic analysis of these iOS devices can provide an investigator with an incredible amount of information. Data on these iOS devices will be explored to teach the student what key files exist on them and what advanced analysis techniques can be used to exploit them for investigations.

Exercises
  • Analyzing iOS Artifacts recovered from an iOS Backup File
  • OS File System Analysis

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

Topics

History of iOS Devices

  • Versions
  • Devices

iOS Acquisition

  • Logical
  • Physical
  • Tools
  • Limitations
    • Encrypted Partitions
    • Passcodes

iOS Analytical Tool Overview

  • Backup
  • Logical
  • Physical

iOS Artifacts Recovered from OS X Systems

  • Backup File Analysis
  • Property Lists
  • Preferences
  • Multimedia Files

iOS File System

  • Major Differences from HFS+
  • System & User Partitions
  • Jailbroken Devices

iOS Artifacts & Areas of Evidentiary Value

  • Artifacts Unique to iOS Devices
  • Preferences & Configuration Data
  • Photo EXIF Data
  • Locational Information
  • Application Usage & Log Files

Third-Party Applications

  • Usage Traces
  • Parse Application Artifacts

 
  FOR518.6: The Mac Forensics Challenge
Overview

Students will put their new Mac forensics skills to the test by completing the following tasks:

  • In-Depth HFS+ File System Examination
  • File System Timeline Analysis
  • Advanced Computer Forensics Methodology
  • Mac Memory Analysis
  • File System Data Analysis
  • Metadata Analysis
  • Recovering Key Mac Files
  • Volume and Disk Image Analysis
  • Analysis of Mac Technologies including Time Machine, Spotlight, and FileVault
  • Advanced Log Analysis and Correlation
  • iDevice Analysis and iOS Artifacts

CPE/CMU Credits: 6

 
Additional Information
 
  Laptop Required

!! IMPORTANT - BRING YOUR OWN SYSTEM CONFIGURED USING THESE DIRECTIONS !!

Mac System Setup Guide: https://www.sans.org/security-resources/for518-mac-system-setup-guide-v1.1.pdf

It is critical that you follow the pre-class setup guide for your Mac found here: https://www.sans.org/security-resources/for518-mac-system-setup-guide-v1.1.pdf. This pre-class Mac system setup guide is crucial to follow prior to attending class the first day. The guide is a detailed step-by-step walk through of a variety of downloads and configuration steps needed to prep your system for an in-depth and exciting week of Mac forensics. Please follow all of the steps correctly otherwise your enjoyment of the class could be impacted. We recommend setting up your system at home as hotel internet might not be adequate to finalize the setup prior to class. Please do not wait until the night before class to follow the setup guide.

A properly configured Mac system is required for each student participating in this course. Before coming to class, carefully read and follow these instructions exactly.

MANDATORY FOR518 SYSTEM HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Apple Mac Laptop with the following minimum configuration:
    • CPU: Intel Core i5/i7 Series (a high-end Intel 2.8Ghz+ Core 2 Duo may also suffice)
    • Wireless 802.11 Capability
    • 4 gigabyte of RAM minimum (8GB RAM or more is recommended)
    • 200 Gigabytes of free space on your system hard drive, or external hard drive.
    • USB 2.0 port(s) or higher
    • The student should have the capability to have Local Administrator Access within their host operating system.

MANDATORY FOR518 SYSTEM SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Host Operating System: Mac OS X 10.7 or higher
  • A virtualized (VMware Fusion 6+ or Parallels 8+ for USB 3.0 compatibility) operating system (10.7-10.9) may be used with the same specifications above.

Install the following on your host machine:

  1. Install Xcode 4.1+

If you have additional questions about the laptop specifications, please contact laptop_prep@sans.org.

 
  Who Should Attend
  • Experienced Digital Forensic Analysts who want to solidify and expand their understanding of file system forensics and advanced Mac analysis.
  • Law Enforcement Officers, Federal Agents, or Detectives who want to master advanced computer forensics and expand their investigative skill set.
  • Media Exploitation Analysts who need to know where to find the critical data they need from a Mac system.
  • Incident Response Team Members who are responding to complex security incidents/intrusions from sophisticated adversaries and need to know what to do when examining a compromised system.
  • Information Security Professionals who want to become knowledgeable with Mac OS X and iOS system internals.
  • SANS FOR408, FOR508, FOR526, FOR610, FOR585 Alumni looking to round out their forensic skills.

 
  What You Will Receive
  • 90-Day Trial for BlackBag Technologies BlackLight Forensic Analysis Software
  • Mac OS X and iOS Internals: To the Apple's Core Book
  • Course USB loaded with case examples, tools, and documentation.

 
  Press & Reviews

"Really excellent course. Fantastic resource in the classroom material. Forensic challenge the last day was very fun" - Anonymous

"Best MAC class anywhere" - Eric Koebelen, Incident Response US

"It was very interesting to learn that certain "forensic" tools could report data as being encrypted even though one could still get other data" - Gary Titus, Stroz Friedberg LLC

"Best course I know about on MAC Forensic. Like the use of mostly "ghetto" tools" - Anonymous

"Solid background for investigations new to MAC" - Eric Mak, Google

"Best of any course I've ever taken. I love the idea of being able to bring home and review" - Eric Koebelen, Incident Response US

"The depth of time exercise was outstanding. One can tell the amount of work that went into it" - Gary Titus, Stroz Friedberg LLC

 

Author Statement

This course is designed to allow an analyst comfortable in Windows-based forensics to perform just as well on the Mac. The Mac market share is an ever increasing and popular platform for many companies and government entities.

I believe a well-rounded forensic analyst is an extremely well-prepared and employable individual in a Windows forensics world. Windows analysis is the base education in the competitive field of digital forensics. Any additional skills you can acquire can set you apart from the crowd, whether it is Mac, mobile, memory, or malware analysis.

Mac forensics is truly a passion of mine that I genuinely want to share with the forensics community. While you may not work on a Mac investigation every day, the tools and techniques you learn in this course will help you with other investigations including Windows, Linux, and mobile. -Sarah Edwards

Additional Resources

Take your learning beyond the classroom. Explore our site network for additional resources related to this course's subject matter.

*CPE/CMU credits not offered for the SelfStudy delivery method

Type
Topic
Course
/ Location
/ Instructor
Date
Register

Training Event
Forensics
SANS Crystal City 2014
Crystal City, VA
Sep 8, 2014 -
Sep 13, 2014
 

Training Event
Forensics
SANS DFIR Prague 2014
Prague, Czech Republic
Sep 29, 2014 -
Oct 11, 2014
 

Training Event
Forensics Sep 29, 2014 -
Oct 6, 2014
 

Training Event
Forensics
SANS DFIRCON East 2014
Fort Lauderdale, FL
Nov 3, 2014 -
Nov 8, 2014
 

*Course contents may vary depending upon location, see specific event description for details.